Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 30, 2018
|Summary of significant accounting policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP") for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. They do not include all information and notes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. However, except as disclosed herein, there has been no material change in the information disclosed in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of The Coca-Cola Company for the year ended December 31, 2017.
When used in these notes, the terms "The Coca-Cola Company," "Company," "we," "us" and "our" mean The Coca-Cola Company and all entities included in our condensed consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three months ended March 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2018. Sales of our nonalcoholic ready-to-drink beverages are somewhat seasonal, with the second and third calendar quarters accounting for the highest sales volumes. The volume of sales in the beverage business may be affected by weather conditions.
Each of our interim reporting periods, other than the fourth interim reporting period, ends on the Friday closest to the last day of the corresponding quarterly calendar period. The first quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2017 ended on March 30, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively. Our fourth interim reporting period and our fiscal year end on December 31 regardless of the day of the week on which December 31 falls.
Certain prior year amounts in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been revised to conform to the current year presentation as a result of the adoption of accounting standards that became effective January 1, 2018, as applicable. Refer to the "Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance" section within this note below for further details.
The Company's accounting policy related to advertising costs for annual reporting purposes, as disclosed in Note 1 of our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K, is to expense production costs of print, radio, television and other advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. All other marketing expenditures are expensed in the annual period in which the expenditure is incurred.
For interim reporting purposes, we allocate our estimated full year marketing expenditures that benefit multiple interim periods to each of our interim reporting periods. We use the proportion of each interim period's actual unit case volume to the estimated full year unit case volume as the basis for the allocation. This methodology results in our marketing expenditures being recognized at a standard rate per unit case. At the end of each interim reporting period, we review our estimated full year unit case volume and our estimated full year marketing expenditures that benefit multiple interim periods in order to evaluate if a change in estimate is necessary. The impact of any changes in these full year estimates is recognized in the interim period in which the change in estimate occurs. Our full year marketing expenditures are not impacted by this interim accounting policy.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs related to the movement of goods from our manufacturing locations to our sales distribution centers are included in the line item cost of goods sold in our condensed consolidated statements of income. Shipping and handling costs incurred to move goods from our manufacturing locations or sales distribution centers to our customers are also included in the line item cost of goods sold in our condensed consolidated statements of income, except for costs incurred to distribute goods sold by our Company-owned bottlers to our customers, which are included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses. Our customers do not pay us separately for shipping and handling costs related to finished goods. Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"). Upon adoption, we made a policy election to recognize the cost of shipping and handling activities which are performed after a customer obtains control of the goods as costs to fulfill our promise to provide goods to the customer. As a result of this election, the Company does not evaluate whether shipping and handling activities are services promised to customers. If revenue is recognized for the related goods before the shipping and handling activities occur, the related costs of those shipping and handling activities are accrued. Refer to Note 3 for additional information regarding revenue recognition.
Sales, Use, Value-Added and Excise Taxes
The Company collects taxes imposed directly on its customers related to sales, use, value-added, excise and other similar taxes. The Company then remits such taxes on behalf of its customers to the applicable governmental authorities. Upon adoption of ASC 606, we made a policy election to exclude from net operating revenues the tax amounts imposed on revenue-producing transactions that were collected from our customers to be remitted to governmental authorities. Accordingly, such tax amounts are recorded in the line item trade accounts receivable in our consolidated balance sheet when collection of taxes from the customer has not yet occurred and are recorded in the line item accounts payable and accrued expenses in our consolidated balance sheet until they are remitted to the applicable governmental authorities. Taxes imposed directly on the Company, whether based on receipts from sales, inventory procurement costs, or manufacturing activities, are recorded in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statement of income. Refer to Note 3 for additional information regarding revenue recognition.
The following table presents information related to net income from continuing operations and net income from discontinued operations (in millions):
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Restricted Cash Equivalents
We classify time deposits and other investments that are highly liquid and have maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase as cash equivalents or restricted cash equivalents, as applicable. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents generally consist of amounts held by our captive insurance companies which are included in the line item other assets on our consolidated balance sheets and amounts classified in assets held for sale. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk through specific minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties and procedures to monitor our concentrations of credit risk.
The following table provides a summary of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents that constitute the total amounts shown in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows (in millions):
1 Amounts represent cash and cash equivalents in our solvency capital portfolio set aside primarily to cover pension obligations in certain of
our European and Canadian pension plans. Refer to Note 4.
A hyperinflationary economy is one that has cumulative inflation of 100 percent or more over a three-year period. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, local subsidiaries in hyperinflationary economies are required to use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency and remeasure the monetary assets and liabilities not denominated in U.S. dollars using the rate applicable to conversion of a currency for purposes of dividend remittances. All exchange gains and losses resulting from remeasurement are recognized currently in income.
Venezuela has been designated as a hyperinflationary economy. We sell concentrate to our bottling partner in Venezuela from outside the country. These sales are denominated in U.S. dollars. We also have certain U.S. dollar-denominated intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela. As a result of weaker sales and the volatility of foreign currency exchange rates resulting from continued political instability, we recorded impairment charges totaling $20 million during the three months ended March 31, 2017 in the line item other operating charges in our condensed consolidated statement of income. As a result of these impairment charges and a subsequent impairment charge in 2017, the remaining carrying value of all U.S. dollar-denominated intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela is zero.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which replaces most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP and is intended to improve and converge with international standards the financial reporting requirements for revenue from contracts with customers. ASU 2014-09 and its amendments were included primarily in ASC 606. The core principle of ASC 606 is that an entity should recognize revenue for the transfer of goods or services equal to the amount that it expects to be entitled to receive for those goods or services. ASC 606 also requires additional disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments. We adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method. We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to decrease the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2018 by $257 million, net of tax. Refer to Note 3.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments — Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities ("ASU 2016-01"), which addresses certain aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and we are now recognizing any changes in the fair value of certain equity investments in net income as prescribed by the new standard rather than in other comprehensive income ("OCI"). We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2018 by $409 million. Refer to Note 4 for additional disclosures required by this ASU.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted using the retrospective transition approach to all periods presented. The impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-15 on our consolidated statement of cash flows was a change in presentation related to our proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies. We restated our condensed consolidated statement of cash flows to reflect these proceeds in the line item other investing activities, which were previously presented in the line item net change in operating assets and liabilities. During the three months ended March 31, 2017, the amount of proceeds received from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies was $24 million.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory ("ASU 2016-16"), which requires the Company to recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. ASU 2016-16 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted using a modified retrospective basis. We recorded a $2.9 billion cumulative effect adjustment to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings with the majority of the offset being recorded as a deferred tax asset in the line item deferred income tax assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheet.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Restricted Cash. The amendments in this update address diversity in practice that exists in the classification and presentation of changes in amounts generally described as restricted cash and require that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and amounts that an entity defines as restricted cash for purposes of this standard or otherwise does not present in the line item cash and cash equivalents on its balance sheet. ASU 2016-18 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted using the retrospective transition method to all periods presented.
Prior to the adoption of this ASU, we presented the transfer of cash and cash equivalents into or out of our captive insurance companies in the line item purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments in our consolidated cash flow statement. We did not present the purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments within our captive insurance companies. Cash flows related to cash and cash equivalents included in our insurance captives are now presented in the line items purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments within the investing activities section of our consolidated statement of cash flows. During the three months ended March 31, 2017, the purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments within our captive insurance companies were $180 million and $186 million, respectively.
Prior to the adoption of this ASU, we treated the change in cash and cash equivalents included in assets held for sale as an adjustment to the line item other investing activities within the statement of cash flows. With the adoption of this ASU, we no longer make this adjustment and restated the prior year to remove this adjustment. During the three months ended March 31, 2017, the change in cash and cash equivalents included in assets held for sale was $262 million. Refer to the heading "Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Restricted Cash Equivalents" above for additional disclosures required by this ASU.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business, which clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted prospectively. The impact on our consolidated financial statements will depend on the facts and circumstances of any specific future transactions.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost ("ASU 2017-07"), which requires that the service cost component of the Company's net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost be included in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by employees, with the non-service components of net periodic benefit cost and other benefit plan charges and credits being classified outside of a subtotal of income from operations. ASU 2017-07 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted retrospectively for the presentation of the other components of net periodic benefit cost and other benefit plan charges and credits in our condensed consolidated statements of income. As part of our adoption, we elected to use a practical expedient which allows us to use information previously disclosed in our note on pension and other postretirement benefit plans as the estimation basis for applying the retrospective presentation requirements of this ASU. For the three months ended March 31, 2017, we reclassified $18 million of income related to our non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost and other benefit plan charges and credits from operating income to other income (loss) — net in our condensed consolidated statement of income. Refer to Note 13 for additional disclosures required by this ASU.
In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-05, Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118. The amendments in this update provide guidance on when to record and disclose provisional amounts for certain income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Reform Act"). The amendments also require any provisional amounts or subsequent adjustments to be included in net income from continuing operations. Additionally, this ASU discusses required disclosures that an entity must make with regard to the Tax Reform Act. This ASU is effective immediately as new information is available to adjust provisional amounts that were previously recorded. The Company has adopted this standard and will continue to evaluate indicators that may give rise to a change in our tax provision as a result of the Tax Reform Act. Refer to Note 14 for additional information on the Tax Reform Act.
Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, which requires lessees to recognize right-of-use assets, representing their right to use the underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for all leases with terms greater than 12 months. The guidance also requires qualitative and quantitative disclosures designed to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The Company has initiated its plan for the adoption and implementation of this new accounting standard, including assessing our lease arrangements, evaluating practical expedient and accounting policy elections, and implementing software to meet the reporting requirements of this standard. The Company is also in the process of identifying changes to our business processes and controls to support adoption of the new standard. ASU 2016-02 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019. The standard requires the use of a modified retrospective transition approach, which includes a number of optional practical expedients that entities may elect to apply. In March 2018, the FASB approved a new, optional transition method that will give companies the option to use the effective date as the date of initial application on transition. The Company plans to elect this transition method, and as a result, we will not adjust our comparative period financial information or make the new required lease disclosures for periods before the effective date. The Company anticipates the adoption of this new standard will result in a significant increase in lease-related assets and liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet. The impact on the Company's consolidated statement of income is being evaluated. As the impact of this standard is non-cash in nature, we do not anticipate its adoption having an impact on the Company's consolidated statement of cash flows.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. ASU 2016-13 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2020 and we are currently evaluating the impact that it will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and requires companies to recognize all elements of hedge accounting that impact earnings in the same line item in the statement of income where the hedged item resides. The amendments include new alternatives for measuring the hedged item for fair value hedges of interest rate risk and ease the requirements for effectiveness testing, hedge documentation and applying the critical terms match method. Finally, the standard introduces new alternatives that permit companies to reduce the risk of material error if the shortcut method is misapplied. ASU 2017-12 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019 and is required to be applied prospectively. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2017-12 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, which permits entities to reclassify the disproportionate income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act on items within accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI") to retained earnings. These disproportionate income tax effect items are referred to as "stranded tax effects." Amendments in this update only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act. Other accounting guidance that requires the effect of changes in tax laws or rates to be included in net income from continuing operations is not affected by this update. ASU 2018-02 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019 and should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Reform Act is recognized. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2018-02 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef