|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 30, 2018
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2016-01 which requires us to measure all equity investments that do not result in consolidation and are not accounted for under the equity method at fair value and recognize any changes in earnings. We use quoted market prices to determine the fair value of equity securities with readily determinable fair values. For equity securities without readily determinable fair values, we have elected the measurement alternative under which we measure these investments at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer. Management assesses each of these investments on an individual basis. Additionally, on a quarterly basis, management is required to make a qualitative assessment of whether the investment is impaired. During the three months ended March 30, 2018, the Company did not recognize any fair value adjustments for equity securities without readily determinable fair values. We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment of $409 million to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings with an offset to AOCI as of January 1, 2018, in connection with the adoption of ASU 2016-01.
For fiscal periods beginning prior to January 1, 2018, marketable equity securities not accounted for under the equity method were classified as trading or available-for-sale. Both realized and unrealized gains and losses on equity securities classified as trading securities were recognized in net income. For equity securities classified as available-for-sale, realized gains and losses were included in net income. Unrealized gains and losses on equity securities classified as available-for-sale were recognized in AOCI, net of deferred taxes. In addition, the Company held equity securities without readily determinable fair values that were recorded at cost. For these cost method investments, we recorded dividend income when applicable dividends were declared. Cost method investments were reported as other investments in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, and dividend income from cost method investments was reported in other income (loss) — net in our condensed consolidated statements of income. We reviewed all of our cost method investments quarterly to determine if impairment indicators were present; however, we were not required to determine the fair value of these investments unless impairment indicators existed. When impairment indicators did exist, we generally used discounted cash flow analyses to determine the fair value. We estimated that the fair values of our cost method investments approximated or exceeded their carrying values as of December 31, 2017. Our cost method investments had a carrying value of $143 million as of December 31, 2017.
As of March 30, 2018, the carrying values of our equity securities were included in the following line items in our condensed consolidated balance sheet (in millions):
The calculation of net unrealized gains and losses for the period that relate to equity securities still held at March 30, 2018 is as follows (in millions):
As of December 31, 2017, equity securities consisted of the following (in millions):
As of December 31, 2017, the Company had investments classified as available-for-sale in which our cost basis exceeded the fair value of our investment. Management assessed each of the available-for-sale securities that were in a gross unrealized loss position on an individual basis to determine if the decline in fair value was other than temporary. Management's assessment as to the nature of a decline in fair value is based on, among other things, the length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than our cost basis; the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer; and our intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value. As a result of these assessments, management determined that the decline in fair value of these investments was not other than temporary and did not record any impairment charges.
As of December 31, 2017, the fair values of our equity securities were included in the following line items in our condensed consolidated balance sheet (in millions):
The sale of available-for-sale equity securities during the three months ended March 31, 2017 resulted in the following realized activity (in millions):
Our investments in debt securities are classified as trading, available-for-sale, or held-to-maturity and carried at either amortized cost or fair value. The cost basis is determined by the specific identification method. Investments in debt securities that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are carried at amortized cost and classified as held-to-maturity. Investments in debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity are carried at fair value and classified as either trading or available-for-sale. Both realized and unrealized gains and losses on debt securities classified as trading securities are included in net income. For debt securities classified as available-for-sale, realized gains and losses are included in net income. Unrealized gains and losses on debt securities classified as available-for-sale are recognized in AOCI, net of deferred taxes, except for the change in fair value attributable to the currency risk being hedged. Refer to Note 6 for additional information related to the Company's fair value hedges of available-for-sale debt securities.
Our debt securities consisted of the following (in millions):
The fair values of our debt securities were included in the following line items in our condensed consolidated balance sheets (in millions):
The contractual maturities of these available-for-sale debt securities as of March 30, 2018 were as follows (in millions):
The Company expects that actual maturities may differ from the contractual maturities above because borrowers have the right to call or prepay certain obligations.
The sale and/or maturity of available-for-sale debt securities resulted in the following realized activity (in millions):
Captive Insurance Companies
In accordance with local insurance regulations, our captive insurance companies are required to meet and maintain minimum solvency capital requirements. The Company elected to invest a majority of its solvency capital in a portfolio of marketable equity and debt securities. These securities are included in the disclosures above. The Company uses one of its consolidated captive insurance companies to reinsure group annuity insurance contracts that cover the pension obligations of certain of our European and Canadian pension plans. This captive's solvency capital funds included equity and debt securities of $1,176 million as of March 30, 2018 and $1,159 million as of December 31, 2017, which are classified in the line item other assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets because the assets are not available to satisfy our current obligations.
The entire disclosure for investments in certain debt and equity securities.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef