BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2011
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business
The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest beverage company. We own or license and market more than 500 nonalcoholic beverage brands, primarily sparkling beverages but also a variety of still beverages such as waters, enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, ready-to-drink teas and coffees, and energy and sports drinks. We own and market four of the world's top five nonalcoholic sparkling beverage brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. Finished beverage products bearing our trademarks, sold in the United States since 1886, are now sold in more than 200 countries.
We make our branded beverage products available to consumers throughout the world through our network of Company-owned or controlled bottling and distribution operations, bottling partners, distributors, wholesalers and retailers — the world's largest beverage distribution system. Of the approximately 56 billion beverage servings of all types consumed worldwide every day, beverages bearing trademarks owned by or licensed to us account for more than 1.7 billion.
On October 2, 2010, we acquired the North American business of Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. ("CCE"), one of our major bottlers, consisting of CCE's production, sales and distribution operations in the United States, Canada, the British Virgin Islands, the United States Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands, and a substantial majority of CCE's corporate segment. Upon completion of the CCE transaction, we combined the management of the acquired North American business with the management of our existing foodservice business; Minute Maid and Odwalla juice businesses; North America supply chain operations; and Company-owned bottling operations in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, into a unified bottling and customer service organization called Coca-Cola Refreshments ("CCR"). In addition, we reshaped our remaining Coca-Cola North America ("CCNA") operations into an organization that primarily provides franchise leadership and consumer marketing and innovation for the North American market.
Our Company markets, manufactures and sells:
Generally, finished products operations generate higher net operating revenues but lower gross profit margins than concentrate operations.
In our concentrate operations, we typically generate net operating revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to authorized bottling and canning operations (to which we typically refer as our "bottlers" or our "bottling partners"). Our bottling partners either combine the concentrates with sweeteners (depending on the product), still water and/or sparkling water, or combine the syrups with sparkling water to produce finished beverages. The finished beverages are packaged in authorized containers bearing our trademarks or trademarks licensed to us — such as cans and refillable and nonrefillable glass and plastic bottles — and are then sold to retailers directly or, in some cases, through wholesalers or other bottlers. Outside the United States, we also sell concentrates for fountain beverages to our bottling partners who are typically authorized to manufacture fountain syrups, which they sell to fountain retailers such as restaurants and convenience stores which use the fountain syrups to produce beverages for immediate consumption, or to fountain wholesalers who in turn sell and distribute the fountain syrups to fountain retailers.
Our finished products operations consist primarily of the production, sales and distribution operations managed by CCR and our Company-owned or controlled bottling and distribution operations. CCR is included in our North America operating segment, and our Company-owned or controlled bottling and distribution operations are included in our Bottling Investments operating segment. Our finished products operations generate net operating revenues by selling sparkling beverages and a variety of still beverages, such as juices and juice drinks, energy and sports drinks, ready-to-drink teas and coffees, and certain water products, to retailers or to distributors, wholesalers and bottling partners who distribute them to retailers. In addition, in the United States, we manufacture fountain syrups and sell them to fountain retailers, such as restaurants and convenience stores who use the fountain syrups to produce beverages for immediate consumption, or to authorized fountain wholesalers or bottling partners who resell the fountain syrups to fountain retailers. In the United States, we authorize wholesalers to resell our fountain syrups through nonexclusive appointments that neither restrict us in setting the prices at which we sell fountain syrups to the wholesalers nor restrict the territories in which the wholesalers may resell in the United States.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Although these estimates are based on our knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates and assumptions. Furthermore, when testing assets for impairment in future periods, if management uses different assumptions or if different conditions occur, impairment charges may result.
We use the equity method to account for investments in companies, if our investment provides us with the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. Our consolidated net income includes our Company's proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies. Our judgment regarding the level of influence over each equity method investment includes considering key factors such as our ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making decisions and material intercompany transactions.
We eliminate from our financial results all significant intercompany transactions, including the intercompany transactions with consolidated variable interest entities ("VIEs") and the intercompany portion of transactions with equity method investees.
Certain amounts in the prior years' consolidated financial statements and notes have been revised to conform to the current year presentation.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Company consolidates all entities that we control by ownership of a majority voting interest as well as VIEs for which our Company is the primary beneficiary. Generally, we consolidate only business enterprises that we control by ownership of a majority voting interest. However, there are situations in which consolidation is required even though the usual condition of consolidation (ownership of a majority voting interest) does not apply. Generally, this occurs when an entity holds an interest in another business enterprise that was achieved through arrangements that do not involve voting interests, which results in a disproportionate relationship between such entity's voting interests in, and its exposure to the economic risks and potential rewards of, the other business enterprise. This disproportionate relationship results in what is known as a variable interest, and the entity in which we have the variable interest is referred to as a "VIE". An enterprise must consolidate a VIE if it is determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE. The primary beneficiary has both (a) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance, and (b) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were not determined to be the primary beneficiary. Our variable interests in these VIEs primarily relate to profit guarantees or subordinated financial support. Refer to Note 11. Although these financial arrangements resulted in us holding variable interests in these entities, the majority of these arrangements did not empower us to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact the VIEs' economic performance. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs totaled $1,183 million and $1,274 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs were not significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In addition, our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were determined to be the primary beneficiary. As a result, we have consolidated these entities. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs totaled $199 million and $191 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The assets and liabilities of VIEs for which we are the primary beneficiary were not significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Creditors of our VIEs do not have recourse against the general credit of the Company, regardless of whether they are accounted for as consolidated entities.
The information presented above reflects the impact of the Company's adoption of accounting guidance issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") related to VIEs in June 2009. This accounting guidance resulted in a change in our accounting policy effective January 1, 2010. Among other things, the guidance requires more qualitative than quantitative analyses to determine the primary beneficiary of a VIE, requires continuous assessments of whether an enterprise is the primary beneficiary of a VIE, enhances disclosures about an enterprise's involvement with a VIE, and amends certain guidance for determining whether an entity is a VIE.
Beginning January 1, 2010, we deconsolidated certain entities as a result of this change in accounting policy. These entities are primarily bottling operations and had previously been consolidated due to certain loan guarantees and/or other financial support given by the Company. These financial arrangements, although not significant to our consolidated financial statements, resulted in a disproportionate relationship between our voting interests in these entities and our exposure to the economic risks and potential rewards of the entities. As a result, we determined that we held a majority of the variable interests in these entities and, therefore, were deemed to be the primary beneficiary in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States as of December 31, 2009. Although these financial arrangements resulted in us holding a majority of the variable interests in these VIEs, the majority of these arrangements did not empower us to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact the VIEs' economic performance. Consequently, subsequent to the change in accounting policy, the Company deconsolidated the majority of these VIEs.
The entities that have been deconsolidated accounted for less than 1 percent of net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company in 2009. On January 1, 2010, the Company began to account for these entities under the equity method of accounting. Although the deconsolidation of these entities impacted individual line items in our consolidated financial statements, the impact on net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company in future periods will be nominal. The equity method of accounting is intended to be a single line consolidation and, therefore, generally should result in the same net income attributable to the investor as would be the case if the investee had been consolidated. The main impact on our consolidated financial statements in 2010 was that instead of these entities' results of operations and balance sheets affecting our consolidated line items, our proportionate share of net income or loss from these entities was reported in equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income, and our investment in these entities was reported as equity method investments in our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 6.
Risks and Uncertainties
Factors that could adversely impact the Company's operations or financial results include, but are not limited to, the following: obesity and other health concerns; water scarcity and poor quality; changes in the nonalcoholic beverage business environment and retail trends; risks related to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as the integration of CCE's North American business; the continuing uncertainty in the credit and equity markets; increased competition; an inability to expand operations in developing and emerging markets; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; interest rate increases; an inability to maintain good relationships with our bottling partners; a deterioration in our bottling partners' financial condition; increases in income tax rates or changes in income tax laws; increased or new indirect taxes in the United States or in other major markets; an inability to renew collective bargaining agreements on satisfactory terms or strikes, work stoppages or labor unrest (including at bottling partners' manufacturing locations); increased cost, disruption of supply or shortage of energy; increased cost, disruption of supply or shortage of ingredients, other raw materials or packaging materials; changes in laws and regulations relating to beverage containers and packaging; significant additional labeling or warning requirements; unfavorable general economic conditions in the United States or in other major markets; unfavorable economic and political conditions in international markets; litigation or legal proceedings; adverse weather conditions; damage to our brand image and corporate reputation from product safety or quality issues, or negative publicity, even if unwarranted; changes in, or failure to comply with, the laws and regulations applicable to our products or our business operations; changes in accounting standards; an inability to achieve our overall long-term goals; an inability to realize the significant benefits from our productivity and reinvestment program; an inability to protect our information systems against service interruption, misappropriation of data or breaches of security; future impairment charges, including charges by equity method investees; an inability to successfully integrate and manage our Company-owned or controlled bottling operations; climate change; and global or regional catastrophic events.
Our Company monitors our operations with a view to minimizing the impact to our overall business that could arise as a result of the risks and uncertainties inherent in our business.
Our Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery of products has occurred, the sales price charged is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. For our Company, this generally means that we recognize revenue when title to our products is transferred to our bottling partners, resellers or other customers. In particular, title usually transfers upon shipment to or receipt at our customers' locations, as determined by the specific sales terms of the transactions. Our sales terms do not allow for a right of return except for matters related to any manufacturing defects on our part.
Deductions from Revenue
Our customers can earn certain incentives including, but not limited to, cash discounts, funds for promotional and marketing activities, volume-based incentive programs and support for infrastructure programs. The costs associated with these incentives are included in deductions from revenue, a component of net operating revenues in our consolidated statements of income. For customer incentives that must be earned, management must make estimates related to the contractual terms, customer performance and sales volume to determine the total amounts earned and to be recorded in deductions from revenue. In making these estimates, management considers past results. The actual amounts ultimately paid may be different from our estimates.
In some situations, the Company may determine it to be advantageous to make advance payments to specific customers to fund certain marketing activities intended to generate profitable volume and/or invest in infrastructure programs with our bottlers that are directed at strengthening our bottling system and increasing unit case volume. The Company also makes advance payments to certain customers for distribution rights. The advance payments made to customers are initially capitalized and included in our consolidated balance sheets in prepaid expenses and other assets and noncurrent other assets, depending on the duration of the agreements. The assets are amortized over the applicable periods and included in deductions from revenue. The duration of these agreements typically ranges from 4 to 10 years.
Amortization expense for infrastructure programs was $90 million, $137 million and $150 million in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The aggregate deductions from revenue recorded by the Company in relation to these programs, including amortization expense on infrastructure programs, were $5.8 billion, $5.0 billion and $4.5 billion in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Our Company expenses production costs of print, radio, television and other advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. All other marketing expenditures are expensed in the annual period in which the expenditure is incurred. Advertising costs included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income were $3.3 billion, $2.9 billion and $2.8 billion in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, advertising and production costs of $349 million and $305 million, respectively, were primarily recorded in the line item prepaid expenses and other assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
For interim reporting purposes, we allocate our estimated full year marketing expenditures that benefit multiple interim periods to each of our interim reporting periods. We use the proportion of each interim period's actual unit case volume to the estimated full year unit case volume as the basis for the allocation. This methodology results in our marketing expenditures being recognized at a standard rate per unit case. At the end of each interim reporting period, we review our estimated full year unit case volume and our estimated full year marketing expenditures in order to evaluate if a change in estimate is necessary. The impact of any changes in these full year estimates is recognized in the interim period in which the change in estimate occurs. Our full year marketing expenditures are not impacted by this interim accounting policy.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs related to the movement of finished goods from manufacturing locations to our sales distribution centers are included in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statements of income. Shipping and handling costs incurred to move finished goods from our sales distribution centers to customer locations are included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income. As a result of our acquisition of CCE's North American business, the amount of shipping and handling costs recorded in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses increased significantly and totaled $2.4 billion during the year ended December 31, 2011. Our customers do not pay us separately for shipping and handling costs related to finished goods.
Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted net income per share is computed similarly to basic net income per share, except that it includes the potential dilution that could occur if dilutive securities were exercised. Approximately 16 million, 38 million and 103 million stock option awards were excluded from the computations of diluted net income per share in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, because the awards would have been antidilutive for the years presented.
We classify time deposits and other investments that are highly liquid and have maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase as cash equivalents. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk through specific minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties and procedures to monitor our credit risk concentrations.
We classify time deposits and other investments that have maturities of greater than three months but less than one year as short-term investments.
Investments in Equity and Debt Securities
We use the equity method to account for our investments in equity securities if our investment gives us the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. We include our proportionate share of earnings and/or losses of our equity method investees in equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. The carrying value of our equity investments is reported in equity method investments in our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 6.
We account for investments in companies that we do not control or account for under the equity method either at fair value or under the cost method, as applicable. Investments in equity securities are carried at fair value if the fair value of the security is readily determinable. Equity investments carried at fair value are classified as either trading or available-for-sale securities with their cost basis determined by the specific identification method. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on trading securities and realized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are included in other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. Unrealized gains and losses, net of deferred taxes, on available-for-sale securities are included in our consolidated balance sheets as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI"). Trading securities are reported as either marketable securities or other assets in our consolidated balance sheets. Securities classified as available-for-sale are reported as either marketable securities, other investments or other assets in our consolidated balance sheets, depending on the length of time we intend to hold the investment. Refer to Note 3.
Investments in equity securities that we do not control or account for under the equity method and do not have readily determinable fair values are accounted for under the cost method. Cost method investments are originally recorded at cost, and we record dividend income when applicable dividends are declared. Cost method investments are reported as other investments in our consolidated balance sheets, and dividend income from cost method investments is reported in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
Our investments in debt securities are carried at either amortized cost or fair value. Investments in debt securities that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are carried at amortized cost and classified as held-to-maturity. Investments in debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity are carried at fair value and classified as either trading or available-for-sale.
Each reporting period we review all of our investments in equity and debt securities, except for those classified as trading, to determine whether a significant event or change in circumstances has occurred that may have an adverse effect on the fair value of each investment. When such events or changes occur, we evaluate the fair value compared to our cost basis in the investment. We also perform this evaluation every reporting period for each investment for which our cost basis exceeded the fair value in the prior period. The fair values of most of our investments in publicly traded companies are often readily available based on quoted market prices. For investments in nonpublicly traded companies, management's assessment of fair value is based on valuation methodologies including discounted cash flows, estimates of sales proceeds and appraisals, as appropriate. We consider the assumptions that we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use in evaluating estimated future cash flows when employing the discounted cash flow or estimates of sales proceeds valuation methodologies.
In the event the fair value of an investment declines below our cost basis, management determines if the decline in fair value is other than temporary. If management determines the decline is other than temporary, an impairment charge is recorded. Management's assessment as to the nature of a decline in fair value is based on, among other things, the length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than our cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and our intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
Trade Accounts Receivable
We record trade accounts receivable at net realizable value. This value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts to reflect any loss anticipated on the trade accounts receivable balances and charged to the provision for doubtful accounts. We calculate this allowance based on our history of write-offs, the level of past-due accounts based on the contractual terms of the receivables, and our relationships with, and the economic status of, our bottling partners and customers. We believe our exposure to concentrations of credit risk is limited due to the diverse geographic areas covered by our operations. Activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows (in millions):
A significant portion of our net operating revenues and corresponding accounts receivable is derived from sales of our products in international markets. Refer to Note 19. We also generate a significant portion of our net operating revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to bottlers in which we have a noncontrolling interest, including Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company S.A. ("Coca-Cola Hellenic"), Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V. ("Coca-Cola FEMSA") and Coca-Cola Amatil Limited ("Coca-Cola Amatil"). Refer to Note 6.
Inventories consist primarily of raw materials and packaging (which includes ingredients and supplies) and finished goods (which include concentrates and syrups in our concentrate operations, and finished beverages in our finished products operations). Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. We determine cost on the basis of the average cost or first-in, first-out methods. Refer to Note 4.
Our Company, when deemed appropriate, uses derivatives as a risk management tool to mitigate the potential impact of certain market risks. The primary market risks managed by the Company through the use of derivative instruments are foreign currency exchange rate risk, commodity price risk and interest rate risk. All derivatives are carried at fair value in our consolidated balance sheets in the line items prepaid expenses and other assets or accounts payable and accrued expenses, as applicable. Refer to Note 5.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Repair and maintenance costs that do not improve service potential or extend economic life are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is recorded principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of our assets, which are reviewed periodically and generally have the following ranges: buildings and improvements: 40 years or less; machinery, equipment and vehicle fleet: 20 years or less; cold-drink equipment: 13 years or less; and containers: 12 years or less. Land is not depreciated, and construction in progress is not depreciated until ready for service. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term, including renewals that are deemed to be reasonably assured, or the estimated useful life of the improvement. Depreciation expense, including the depreciation expense of assets under capital lease, totaled $1,654 million, $1,188 million and $1,005 million in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Amortization expense for leasehold improvements totaled $18 million, $16 million and $18 million in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Certain events or changes in circumstances may indicate that the recoverability of the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment should be assessed, including, among others, a significant decrease in market value, a significant change in the business climate in a particular market, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with historical losses or projected future losses. When such events or changes in circumstances are present, we estimate the future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset (or asset group) and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of property, plant and equipment, including appraisals and discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. Refer to Note 7.
Goodwill, Trademarks and Other Intangible Assets
We classify intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization, (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization and (3) goodwill. We determine the useful lives of our identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors we consider when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company's long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or other local regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset, and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives, generally ranging from 1 to 20 years. Refer to Note 8.
When facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable, management assesses the recoverability of the carrying value by preparing estimates of sales volume and the resulting gross profit and cash flows. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset (or asset group) exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of these assets, including discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use.
We test intangible assets determined to have indefinite useful lives, including trademarks, franchise rights and goodwill, for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that assets might be impaired. Our Company performs these annual impairment reviews as of the first day of our third fiscal quarter. We use a variety of methodologies in conducting impairment assessments of indefinite-lived intangible assets, including, but not limited to, discounted cash flow models, which are based on the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. For indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, if the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess.
We perform impairment tests of goodwill at our reporting unit level, which is one level below our operating segments. Our operating segments are primarily based on geographic responsibility, which is consistent with the way management runs our business. Our operating segments are subdivided into smaller geographic regions or territories that we sometimes refer to as "business units." These business units are also our reporting units. The Bottling Investments operating segment includes all Company-owned or consolidated bottling operations, regardless of geographic location, except for bottling operations managed by CCR, which are included in our North America operating segment. Generally, each Company-owned or consolidated bottling operation within our Bottling Investments operating segment is its own reporting unit. Goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit or units that benefit from the synergies arising from each business combination.
The goodwill impairment test consists of a two-step process, if necessary. The first step is to compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. We typically use discounted cash flow models to determine the fair value of a reporting unit. The assumptions used in these models are consistent with those we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the second step of the impairment test must be performed in order to determine the amount of impairment loss, if any. The second step compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The loss recognized cannot exceed the carrying amount of goodwill.
Impairment charges related to intangible assets are generally recorded in the line item other operating charges or, to the extent they relate to equity method investees, in the line item equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
Our Company is involved in various legal proceedings and tax matters. Due to their nature, such legal proceedings and tax matters involve inherent uncertainties including, but not limited to, court rulings, negotiations between affected parties and governmental actions. Management assesses the probability of loss for such contingencies and accrues a liability and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. Refer to Note 11.
Our Company currently sponsors stock option plans and restricted stock award plans. The fair values of the stock awards are determined using an estimated expected life. The Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the period the award is earned by the employee. Refer to Note 12.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans
Our Company sponsors and/or contributes to pension and postretirement health care and life insurance benefit plans covering substantially all U.S. employees. We also sponsor nonqualified, unfunded defined benefit pension plans for certain associates and participate in multi-employer pension plans in the United States. In addition, our Company and its subsidiaries have various pension plans and other forms of postretirement arrangements outside the United States. Refer to Note 13.
Income tax expense includes United States, state, local and international income taxes, plus a provision for U.S. taxes on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries not deemed to be indefinitely reinvested. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. The tax rate used to determine the deferred tax assets and liabilities is the enacted tax rate for the year and manner in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. The Company records taxes that are collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities on a net basis in our consolidated statements of income.
The Company is involved in various tax matters, with respect to some of which the outcome is uncertain. We establish reserves to remove some or all of the tax benefit of any of our tax positions at the time we determine that it becomes uncertain based upon one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is not "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but for a lesser amount, or (3) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but not in the financial period in which the tax position was originally taken. For purposes of evaluating whether or not a tax position is uncertain, (1) we presume the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information; (2) the technical merits of a tax position are derived from authorities such as legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings and case law and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position; and (3) each tax position is evaluated without consideration of the possibility of offset or aggregation with other tax positions taken. A number of years may elapse before a particular uncertain tax position is audited and finally resolved or when a tax assessment is raised. The number of years subject to tax assessments varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. The tax benefit that has been previously reserved because of a failure to meet the "more likely than not" recognition threshold would be recognized in our income tax expense in the first interim period when the uncertainty disappears under any one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position, amount, and/or timing is ultimately settled through negotiation or litigation, or (3) the statute of limitations for the tax position has expired. Refer to Note 14.
Translation and Remeasurement
We translate the assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries from their respective functional currencies to U.S. dollars at the appropriate spot rates as of the balance sheet date. Generally, our foreign subsidiaries use the local currency as their functional currency. Changes in the carrying value of these assets and liabilities attributable to fluctuations in spot rates are recognized in foreign currency translation adjustment, a component of AOCI. Refer to Note 15. Income statement accounts are translated using the monthly average exchange rates during the year.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency that is different from a reporting entity's functional currency must first be remeasured from the applicable currency to the legal entity's functional currency. The effect of this remeasurement process is recognized in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income and is partially offset by the impact of our economic hedging program for certain exposures on our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 5.
A hyperinflationary economy is one that has cumulative inflation of approximately 100 percent or more over a three-year period. Effective January 1, 2010, Venezuela was determined to be a hyperinflationary economy, and the Venezuelan government devalued the bolivar by resetting the official rate of exchange ("official rate") from 2.15 bolivars per U.S. dollar to 2.6 bolivars per U.S. dollar for essential goods and 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar for nonessential goods. In accordance with hyperinflationary accounting under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, our local subsidiary was required to use the U.S. dollar as its functional currency. As a result, we remeasured the net assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary using the official rate for nonessential goods of 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar. During the first quarter of 2010, we recorded a loss of $103 million related to the remeasurement of our Venezuelan subsidiary's net assets. The loss was recorded in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income. We classified the impact of the remeasurement loss in the line item effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents in our consolidated statement of cash flows.
In early June 2010, the Venezuelan government introduced a newly regulated foreign currency exchange system known as the Transaction System for Foreign Currency Denominated Securities ("SITME"). This new system, which is subject to annual limits, replaced the parallel market whereby entities domiciled in Venezuela are able to exchange their bolivars to U.S. dollars through authorized financial institutions (commercial banks, savings and lending institutions, etc.).
In December 2010, the Venezuelan government announced that it was eliminating the official rate of 2.6 bolivars per U.S. dollar for essential goods. As a result, there are only two exchange rates available for remeasuring bolivar-denominated transactions as of December 31, 2011, the official rate of 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar for nonessential goods and the SITME rate. As discussed above, the Company has remeasured the net assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary using the official rate for nonessential goods of 4.3 bolivars per U.S. dollar since January 1, 2010. Therefore, the elimination of the official rate for essential goods had no impact on the remeasurement of the net assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary. We continue to use the official exchange rate for nonessential goods to remeasure the financial statements of our Venezuelan subsidiary. If the official exchange rate devalues further, it would result in our Company recognizing additional foreign currency exchange losses in our consolidated financial statements. As of December 31, 2011, our Venezuelan subsidiary held monetary assets of $300 million, including cash, which accounted for approximately 2 percent of our consolidated cash and cash equivalents balance.
In addition to the foreign currency exchange exposure related to our Venezuelan subsidiary's net assets, we also sell concentrate to our bottling partner in Venezuela from outside the country. These sales are denominated in U.S. dollars. Some of our concentrate sales were approved by the government-operated Foreign Exchange Administration Board ("CADIVI") to receive the official rate for essential goods of 2.6 bolivars per U.S. dollar prior to the elimination of the official rate for essential goods in December 2010. Prior to the elimination of the official rate for essential goods, our bottling partner in Venezuela was able to convert bolivars to U.S. dollars to settle our receivables related to sales approved by the CADIVI. Therefore, as of December 31, 2011, our receivable balance related to concentrate sales that had been approved by the CADIVI was not significant. If we are unable to utilize a government-approved exchange rate mechanism for future concentrate sales to our bottling partner in Venezuela, the amount of receivables related to these sales will increase. In addition, we have certain intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela. If we are unable to utilize a government-approved exchange rate mechanism for concentrate sales, or if the bolivar further devalues, it could result in the impairment of these intangible assets. As of December 31, 2011, the carrying value of our accounts receivable from our bottling partner in Venezuela and intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela was $147 million. The revenues and cash flows associated with concentrate sales to our bottling partner in Venezuela in 2012 are not anticipated to be significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance
In June 2011, the FASB issued an amendment to an existing accounting standard which requires companies to present net income and other comprehensive income in one continuous statement or in two separate, but consecutive, statements. In addition, in December 2011, the FASB issued an amendment to an existing accounting standard which defers the requirement to present components of reclassifications of other comprehensive income on the face of the income statement. This new accounting pronouncement is effective for our first quarter of 2012 and we do not expect any material impact on our financial statements from its adoption.
As previously discussed, in June 2009, the FASB amended its guidance on accounting for VIEs. Please refer to the heading "Principles of Consolidation" above.