FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
|Fair Value Measurements Disclosure [Abstract]|
|FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS||
FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States define fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Additionally, the inputs used to measure fair value are prioritized based on a three-level hierarchy. This hierarchy requires entities to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The three levels of inputs used to measure fair value are as follows:
Recurring Fair Value Measurements
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, certain assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. For our Company, the only assets and liabilities that are adjusted to fair value on a recurring basis are investments in equity and debt securities classified as trading or available-for-sale and derivative financial instruments. Additionally, the Company adjusts the carrying value of certain long-term debt as a result of the Company's fair value hedging strategy.
Investments in Trading and Available-for-Sale Securities
The fair values of our investments in trading and available-for-sale securities using quoted market prices from daily exchange traded markets are based on the closing price as of the balance sheet date and are classified as Level 1. The fair values of our investments in trading and available-for-sale securities classified as Level 2 are priced using quoted market prices for similar instruments or nonbinding market prices that are corroborated by observable market data. Inputs into these valuation techniques include actual trade data, benchmark yields, broker/dealer quotes and other similar data. These inputs are obtained from quoted market prices, independent pricing vendors or other sources.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The fair values of our futures contracts are primarily determined using quoted contract prices on futures exchange markets. The fair values of these instruments are based on the closing contract price as of the balance sheet date and are classified as Level 1.
The fair values of our derivative instruments other than futures are determined using standard valuation models. The significant inputs used in these models are readily available in public markets, or can be derived from observable market transactions, and therefore have been classified as Level 2. Inputs used in these standard valuation models for derivative instruments other than futures include the applicable exchange rates, forward rates, interest rates, discount rates and commodity prices. The standard valuation model for options also uses implied volatility as an additional input. The discount rates are based on the historical U.S. Deposit or U.S. Treasury rates, and the implied volatility specific to options is based on quoted rates from financial institutions.
Included in the fair value of derivative instruments is an adjustment for nonperformance risk. The adjustment is based on current credit default swap ("CDS") rates applied to each contract, by counterparty. We use our counterparty's CDS rate when we are in an asset position and our own CDS rate when we are in a liability position. The adjustment for nonperformance risk did not have a significant impact on the estimated fair value of our derivative instruments.
The following tables summarize those assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in millions):
Gross realized and unrealized gains and losses on Level 3 assets and liabilities were not significant for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.
The Company recognizes transfers between levels within the hierarchy as of the beginning of the reporting period. Gross transfers between levels within the hierarchy were not significant for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.
Nonrecurring Fair Value Measurements
In addition to assets and liabilities that are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis, the Company records assets and liabilities at fair value on a nonrecurring basis as required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Generally, assets are recorded at fair value on a nonrecurring basis as a result of impairment charges.
The gains or losses on assets measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis are summarized in the table below (in millions):
Fair Value Measurements for Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans
The fair value hierarchy discussed above is not only applicable to assets and liabilities that are included in our consolidated balance sheets but is also applied to certain other assets that indirectly impact our consolidated financial statements. For example, our Company sponsors and/or contributes to a number of pension and other postretirement benefit plans. Assets contributed by the Company become the property of the individual plans. Even though the Company no longer has control over these assets, we are indirectly impacted by subsequent fair value adjustments to these assets. The actual return on these assets impacts the Company's future net periodic benefit cost, as well as amounts recognized in our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 13. The Company uses the fair value hierarchy to measure the fair value of assets held by our various pension and other postretirement benefit plans.
Pension Plan Assets
The following table summarizes the levels within the fair value hierarchy for our pension plan assets as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in millions):
The following table provides a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balance of Level 3 assets for our U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in millions):
Other Postretirement Benefit Plan Assets
The following table summarizes the levels within the fair value hierarchy for our other postretirement benefit plan assets as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in millions):
Other Fair Value Disclosures
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents; short-term investments; receivables; accounts payable and accrued expenses; and loans and notes payable approximate their fair values because of the relatively short-term maturities of these financial instruments.
The fair value of our long-term debt is estimated using Level 2 inputs based on quoted prices for those instruments. Where quoted prices are not available, fair value is estimated using discounted cash flows and market-based expectations for interest rates, credit risk and the contractual terms of the debt instruments. As of December 31, 2015, the carrying amount and fair value of our long-term debt, including the current portion, were $31,084 million and $31,308 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2014, the carrying amount and fair value of our long-term debt, including the current portion, were $22,615 million and $23,411 million, respectively.
This item represents the complete disclosure regarding the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments, assets, and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the Company is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risk is are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information. Also includes fair value disclosures related to pension plan assets and related to non-financial instruments, such as intangibles.
No definition available.