ACQUISITIONS AND DIVESTITURES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Acquisitions and Divestitures Disclosure [|
|ACQUISITIONS AND DIVESTITURES||
ACQUISITIONS AND DIVESTITURES
During 2016, our Company's acquisitions of businesses, equity method investments and nonmarketable securities totaled $838 million, which primarily related to our acquisition of Xiamen Culiangwang Beverage Technology Co., Ltd. ("China Green"), a maker of plant-based protein beverages in China, and a minority investment in CHI Limited ("CHI"), a Nigerian producer of value-added dairy and juice beverages, which is accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Under the terms of the agreement for our investment in CHI, the Company is obligated to acquire the remaining ownership interest from the existing shareowners in 2019 based on an agreed-upon formula.
During 2015, our Company's acquisitions of businesses, equity method investments and nonmarketable securities totaled $2,491 million, which primarily related to our strategic partnership with Monster Beverage Corporation ("Monster") and an investment in a bottling partner in Indonesia that is accounted for under the equity method of accounting. The bottling partner in Indonesia is a subsidiary of Coca-Cola Amatil Limited, an equity method investee. We also acquired the remaining outstanding shares of a bottling partner in South Africa ("South African bottler"), which was previously accounted for as an equity method investment. We remeasured our previously held equity interest in the South African bottler to fair value upon the close of the transaction and recorded a loss on the remeasurement of $19 million during the year ended December 31, 2015. This bottler was deconsolidated in conjunction with the Coca-Cola Beverages Africa Proprietary Limited transaction discussed further below.
During 2014, our Company's acquisitions of businesses, equity method investments and nonmarketable securities totaled $389 million, and primarily included a joint investment with one of our bottling partners in a dairy company in Ecuador, which is accounted for under the equity method of accounting.
Monster Beverage Corporation
On August 14, 2014, the Company and Monster entered into definitive agreements for a long-term strategic relationship in the global energy drink category. The transaction contemplated under these agreements ("Monster Transaction") closed on June 12, 2015. As a result of the Monster Transaction, (1) the Company purchased newly issued shares of Monster common stock representing approximately 17 percent of the outstanding shares of Monster common stock (after giving effect to the new issuance); (2) the Company sold its global energy drink business (including NOS, Full Throttle, Burn, Mother, Play and Power Play, and Relentless) to Monster, and the Company acquired Monster's non-energy drink business (including Hansen's Natural Sodas, Peace Tea, Hubert's Lemonade and Hansen's Juice Products); and (3) the parties amended their distribution coordination agreements to expand distribution of Monster products into additional territories pursuant to long-term agreements with the Company's existing network of Company-owned or -controlled bottling operations and independent distribution partners. The Company and its bottling partners ("Coca-Cola system") also became Monster's preferred global distribution partner. The Company made a net cash payment of $2,150 million to Monster, of which $125 million was being held in escrow, subject to release upon achievement of milestones relating to the transfer of Monster's domestic distribution rights to our distribution network. The escrow was released in June 2016 upon the expiration of the escrow term as certain milestones relating to the transfer of Monster's domestic distribution rights to our distribution network had not been achieved. However, due to the probability that these milestones will be achieved at a future date, the Company has accrued $125 million related to these future payments to Monster.
The Monster Transaction consisted of multiple elements including the purchase of common stock, the acquisition and divestiture of businesses and the expansion of distribution territories. When consideration transferred is not solely in the form of cash, measurement is based on either the cost to the acquiring entity (the fair value of the assets given) or the fair value of the assets acquired, whichever is more clearly evident and, thus, more reliably measurable. As the majority of the consideration transferred was cash, we believe the fair value of the consideration transferred is more reliably measurable. The consideration transferred consists of $2,150 million of cash (including $125 million initially held in escrow) and the fair value of our global energy business of $2,046 million, which we determined using discounted cash flow analyses, resulting in total consideration transferred of $4,196 million.
As such, we have allocated the total consideration transferred to the individual assets and business acquired based on a relative fair value basis, using the closing date fair values of each element, as follows (in millions):
In addition to our ownership interest in Monster's outstanding common stock, the Company is represented by two directors on Monster's 10 member Board of Directors. Based on our equity ownership percentage, the significance that our expanded distribution and coordination agreements have on Monster's operations, and our representation on Monster's Board of Directors, the Company is accounting for its interest in Monster as an equity method investment.
As a result of the Monster Transaction, the North America Coca-Cola system obtained the right to distribute Monster products in territories for which it was not previously the authorized distributor ("expanded territories"). These distribution rights are governed by an agreement with an initial term of 20 years, after which it will continue to remain in effect unless otherwise terminated by either party, and there are no future costs of renewal. As such, these rights were determined to be indefinite-lived intangible assets and are classified in the line item bottlers' franchise rights with indefinite lives in our consolidated balance sheet. CCR is the distributor in the majority of the expanded territories. The remainder of the territories are serviced by independent bottling partners. Of the $1,035 million allocated to the expanded distribution rights, the Company derecognized $341 million related to the expanded territories serviced by the independent bottling partners upon the close of the transaction. As consideration for these rights, the Company received an upfront payment of $28 million related to these territories, and we will receive a payment per case on all future sales made by these independent bottlers for the duration of the distribution agreements. As these payments are dependent on future sales, they are a form of contingent consideration. We elected to account for this consideration in the same manner as the contingent consideration to be received in the North America refranchising, discussed below. This resulted in a net loss of $313 million recorded in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income during the year ended December 31, 2015.
During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company recognized a gain of $1,715 million on the sale of our global energy drink business, primarily due to the difference in the recorded carrying value of the assets transferred, including an allocated portion of goodwill, compared to the value of the total assets and business acquired. After considering the loss resulting from the derecognition of the expanded territory rights serviced by the independent bottling partners, the net gain recognized on the Monster Transaction was $1,403 million, which was recorded in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income. Additionally, under the terms of the Monster Transaction, we were required to discontinue selling energy products under certain trademarks, including one trademark in the glacéau portfolio. The Company recognized an impairment charge of $380 million upon closing, primarily related to the discontinuation of the energy products in the glacéau portfolio, which was recorded in the line item other operating charges in our consolidated statement of income.
During the year ended December 31, 2015, based on the relative fair values of the total assets and business acquired, $1,620 million of the $2,150 million cash payment made was classified in the line item acquisitions of businesses, equity method investments and nonmarketable securities in our consolidated statement of cash flows. The remaining $530 million was classified in the line item other investing activities in our consolidated statement of cash flows.
German Bottling Operations
In conjunction with the Company's acquisition of German bottling operations in 2007, the former owners received put options to sell their respective shares in the operations back to the Company in January 2014. The Company paid $503 million to purchase these shares, which was included in the line item other financing activities in our consolidated statement of cash flows, resulting in 100 percent ownership of our German bottling operations. This bottler was deconsolidated in conjunction with the Coca-Cola European Partners transaction discussed further below.
During 2016, proceeds from disposals of businesses, equity method investments and nonmarketable securities totaled $1,035 million, primarily related to proceeds from the refranchising of certain of our bottling territories in North America.
During 2015, proceeds from disposals of businesses, equity method investments and nonmarketable securities totaled $565 million, which included proceeds from the refranchising of certain of our bottling territories in North America and proceeds from the sale of a 10 percent interest in a Brazilian bottling partner as a result of the majority owners exercising their right to acquire additional shares from us.
During 2014, proceeds from disposals of businesses, equity method investments and nonmarketable securities totaled $148 million, which primarily represented the proceeds from the refranchising of certain of our bottling territories in North America.
North America Refranchising
In conjunction with implementing a new beverage partnership model in North America, the Company refranchised bottling territories that were previously managed by CCR to certain of our unconsolidated bottling partners. These territories generally border these bottlers' existing territories, allowing each bottler to better service local customers and provide more efficient execution. By entering into comprehensive beverage agreements ("CBAs") with each of the bottlers, we granted certain exclusive territory rights for the distribution, promotion, marketing and sale of Company-owned and licensed beverage products as defined by the CBA. In some cases, the Company has entered into, or agreed to enter into, manufacturing agreements that authorize certain bottlers that have executed a CBA to manufacture certain beverage products. If a bottler has not entered into a specific manufacturing agreement, then under the CBA for these territories, CCR retains the rights to produce these beverage products and the bottlers will purchase from CCR (or other Company-authorized manufacturing bottlers) substantially all of the related finished products needed in order to service the customers in these territories.
Each CBA generally has a term of 10 years and is renewable, in most cases by the bottler and in some cases by the Company, indefinitely for successive additional terms of 10 years each. Under the CBA, the bottlers will make ongoing quarterly payments to the Company based on their gross profit in the refranchised territories throughout the term of the CBA, including renewals, in exchange for the grant of the exclusive territory rights.
Contemporaneously with the grant of these rights, the Company sold the distribution assets, certain working capital items, and the exclusive rights to distribute certain beverage brands not owned by the Company, but distributed by CCR, in each of these territories to the respective bottlers in exchange for cash. These rights include, where applicable, the distribution rights acquired from Monster in 2015 for the respective territories.
In 2016, the Company formed a new National Product Supply System ("NPSS") to facilitate optimal operation of the U.S. product supply system. Under the NPSS, the Company and several of its existing independent producing bottlers administer key national product supply activities for these bottlers. Additionally, we have sold or are in the process of selling certain production facilities from CCR to these independent producing bottlers in exchange for cash.
During the years ended December 31, 2016, December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, cash proceeds from these sales totaled $1,017 million, $362 million and $143 million, respectively. Included in the cash proceeds for the years ended December 31, 2016, December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 was $279 million, $83 million and $42 million, respectively, from Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated ("CCBCC"), an equity method investee.
Under the applicable accounting guidance, we were required to derecognize all of the tangible assets sold as well as the intangible assets transferred, including distribution rights, customer relationships and an allocated portion of goodwill related to these territories. We recognized losses of $2,456 million, $1,006 million and $799 million during the years ended December 31, 2016, December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively. These losses primarily related to the derecognition of the intangible assets transferred or reclassified as held for sale and were included in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. See further discussion of assets and liabilities held for sale below. We expect to recover the value of the intangible assets transferred to the bottlers under the CBAs through the future quarterly payments; however, as the payments for the territory rights are dependent on the bottlers' future gross profit in these territories, they are considered a form of contingent consideration.
There is diversity in practice as it relates to the accounting for contingent consideration by the seller. The seller can account for the future contingent payments received as a gain contingency, recognizing the amounts in the income statement only after the related contingencies are resolved and the gain is realized, which in this arrangement will be quarterly as the bottlers earn gross profit in the transferred territories. Alternatively, the seller can record a receivable for the contingent consideration at fair value on the date of sale and record any future differences between the payments received and this receivable in the income statement as they occur. We elected the gain contingency treatment since the quarterly payments will be received throughout the terms of the CBAs, including all subsequent renewals, regardless of the cumulative amount received as compared to the value of the intangible assets transferred.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company incurred $31 million of expense related to payments made to certain of our unconsolidated bottling partners in order to convert the bottling agreements for their legacy territories and any previously refranchised territories to a single form of CBA with additional requirements. The additional requirements generally include a binding national governance model, mandatory incidence pricing and additional core performance requirements, among other things. As a result of these conversions, the legacy territories and any previously refranchised territories for each of the related bottling partners will be governed under similar CBAs, which will provide consistency across each such bottler's respective territory, and consistency with other U.S. bottlers that have been granted or converted to this form of CBA. The expense related to these payments was included in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income during the year ended December 31, 2016.
Coca-Cola European Partners
In August 2015, the Company entered into an agreement to combine our German bottling operations with Coca-Cola Enterprises, Inc. ("CCE") and Coca-Cola Iberian Partners, S.A.U., formerly known as Coca-Cola Iberian Partners, S.A. ("CCIP"), to create CCEP. As of December 31, 2015, our German bottling operations were classified as held for sale. On May 28, 2016, the transaction closed and we exchanged our German bottling operations for an 18 percent interest in CCEP. As a result of recording our interest in CCEP at fair value based on its quoted market price, the deconsolidation of our German bottling operations, and the related reversal of its cumulative translation adjustments, we recognized a gain of $1,400 million. This gain was partially offset by a $77 million loss incurred as a result of reclassifying losses related to our net investment hedges of our German bottling operations from AOCI into earnings as well as transaction costs incurred resulting in a net gain of $1,287 million during the year ended December 31, 2016. Refer to Note 15. With the exception of the transaction costs, the net gain was recorded in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income. The Company accounts for its 18 percent interest in CCEP as an equity method investment based on our equity ownership percentage, our representation on CCEP's Board of Directors, material intercompany transactions and other governance rights.
Keurig Green Mountain, Inc.
In February 2014, the Company purchased newly issued shares in Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. ("Keurig") for $1,265 million, including transaction costs of $14 million. In May 2014, the Company purchased additional shares of Keurig in the market for $302 million, which represented an additional 2 percent equity position in Keurig.
Subsequent to these purchases, the Company entered into an agreement with Credit Suisse Capital LLC ("CS") to purchase additional shares of Keurig which would increase the Company's equity position to a 16 percent interest based on the total number of issued and outstanding shares of Keurig as of May 1, 2014. Under the agreement, the Company was to purchase from CS, on a date selected by CS no later than February 2015, the lesser of (1) 6.5 million shares of Keurig or (2) the number of shares that shall cause our ownership to equal 16 percent. The purchase price per share was the average of the daily volume-weighted average price per share from May 15, 2014, to the date selected by CS, as adjusted in certain circumstances specified in the agreement. CS had exclusive ownership and control over any such shares until delivered to the Company. In February 2015, the Company purchased 6.4 million shares from CS under this agreement for a total purchase price of $830 million. As this agreement qualified as a derivative, we recognized a loss of $58 million in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income during the year ended December 31, 2015. The Company recognized a cumulative loss of $47 million in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income over the term of the agreement. The purchases of the shares were included in the line item purchases of investments in our consolidated statement of cash flows, net of any related derivative impact. The Company accounted for the investment in Keurig as an available-for-sale security, which was included in the line item other investments in our consolidated balance sheet.
In March 2016, a JAB Holding Company-led investor group acquired Keurig for $92 per share. The Company received proceeds of $2,380 million, which were recorded in the line item proceeds from disposals of investments in our consolidated statement of cash flows, and recorded a gain of $18 million related to the disposal of our shares of Keurig in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income during the year ended December 31, 2016.
Coca-Cola Beverages Africa Proprietary Limited
In November 2014, the Company, SABMiller plc and Gutsche Family Investments entered into an agreement to combine bottling operations of each of the parties' nonalcoholic ready-to-drink beverage businesses in Southern and East Africa. In connection with the July 2, 2016 closing of the transaction to form the new bottler, which is called Coca-Cola Beverages Africa Proprietary Limited ("CCBA"), the Company: (1) contributed its South African bottling operations to CCBA, which included certain wholly owned subsidiaries and an equity method investment, (2) paid $150 million in cash, (3) obtained a 12 percent interest in CCBA and a 3 percent interest in CCBA's South African subsidiary and (4) acquired several trademarks that are generally indefinite-lived.
As a result of recording our interests in CCBA and its South African subsidiary at fair value, the deconsolidation of our South African bottling operations, the derecognition of the equity method investment, and the reversal of related cumulative translation adjustments, we recognized a loss of $21 million. The fair values of the equity investments in CCBA and CCBA's South African subsidiary along with the acquired trademarks were determined using income approaches, including discounted cash flow models, and the Company believes the inputs and assumptions used are consistent with those hypothetical marketplace participants would use. The loss recognized resulted primarily from the reversal of the related cumulative translation adjustments. This loss is recorded in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income during the year ended December 31, 2016.
Through the Company's 12 percent interest in CCBA, the Company is represented by two directors on CCBA's 10-member Board of Directors. Based on the level of equity ownership, the Company’s representation on the Board of Directors, material intercompany transactions and other governance rights, the Company is accounting for its interests in CCBA and CCBA's South African subsidiary as equity method investments.
In October 2016, Anheuser-Busch InBev ("ABI") acquired SABMiller plc, including its controlling interest in CCBA. In December 2016, the Company and ABI reached an agreement regarding the transition of ABI's stake in CCBA for an equity value of $3,150 million, after customary adjustments. The Company has also agreed in principle to acquire ABI's interest in bottling operations in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, El Salvador and Honduras. The Company will negotiate the terms of this transaction with ABI according to the contractual parameters. The transactions are subject to the relevant regulatory and minority shareholder approvals and are expected to close by the end of 2017. We plan to hold all of these territories temporarily until they can be refranchised to other partners.
Brazilian Bottling Operations
In December 2014, the Company received notification that the owners of the majority interest in a Brazilian bottling operation had exercised their option to acquire from us shares representing a 10 percent interest in the entity's outstanding shares. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recorded an estimated loss of $32 million as a result of the exercise price being lower than our carrying value of these shares. The transaction closed in January 2015, and the Company recorded an additional loss of $6 million during the year ended December 31, 2015, calculated based on the final option price. As a result of this transaction, the Company's ownership was reduced to 34 percent of the entity’s outstanding shares. The owners of the majority interest have a remaining option to acquire an additional 14 percent interest of the entity's outstanding shares at any time through December 31, 2019, based on an agreed-upon formula.
Assets and Liabilities Held for Sale
North America Refranchising
As of December 31, 2016, the Company had entered into agreements, or otherwise approved plans, to refranchise additional territories in North America. For territories that met the criteria to be classified as held for sale, we were required to record their assets and liabilities at the lower of carrying value or fair value less any costs to sell based on the agreed-upon sale price. The Company expects that these territories will be refranchised within the next 12 months.
Refranchising of China Bottling Operations
In November 2016, the Company entered into definitive agreements for the sale of the Company-owned bottling operations in China to the two existing franchise bottlers and to sell a related cost method investment to one of the franchise bottlers. Closing is subject to various regulatory approvals and is expected in the first half of 2017. As a result, the Company's bottling operations in China and a related cost method investment met the criteria to be classified as held for sale, which requires us to present the related assets and liabilities as separate line items in our consolidated balance sheet. We were not required to record these assets and liabilities at fair value less any costs to sell because their fair value approximates our carrying value.
The following table presents information related to the major classes of assets and liabilities that were classified as held for sale in our consolidated balance sheets (in millions):
We determined that the operations included in the table above did not meet the criteria to be classified as discontinued operations under the applicable guidance.
The entire disclosure for a business combination (or series of individually immaterial business combinations) completed during the period, including background, timing, and recognized assets and liabilities. The disclosure may include leverage buyout transactions (as applicable).
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef