BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business
The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest beverage company. We own or license and market more than 500 nonalcoholic beverage brands, which we group into the following category clusters: sparkling soft drinks; water, enhanced water and sports drinks; juice, dairy and plant-based beverages; tea and coffee; and energy drinks. We own and market four of the world's top five nonalcoholic sparkling soft drink brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. Finished beverage products bearing our trademarks, sold in the United States since 1886, are now sold in more than 200 countries.
We make our branded beverage products available to consumers throughout the world through our network of Company-owned or -controlled bottling and distribution operations, as well as independent bottling partners, distributors, wholesalers and retailers — the world's largest beverage distribution system. Beverages bearing trademarks owned by or licensed to us account for more than 1.9 billion of the approximately 60 billion servings of all beverages consumed worldwide every day.
Our Company markets, manufactures and sells:
Generally, finished product operations generate higher net operating revenues but lower gross profit margins than concentrate operations.
In our concentrate operations, we typically generate net operating revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to authorized bottling operations (to which we typically refer as our "bottlers" or our "bottling partners"). Our bottling partners either combine the concentrates with sweeteners (depending on the product), still water and/or sparkling water, or combine the syrups with sparkling water to produce finished beverages. The finished beverages are packaged in authorized containers — such as cans and refillable and nonrefillable glass and plastic bottles — bearing our trademarks or trademarks licensed to us and are then sold to retailers directly or, in some cases, through wholesalers or other bottlers. Outside the United States, we also sell concentrates for fountain beverages to our bottling partners who are typically authorized to manufacture fountain syrups, which they sell to fountain retailers such as restaurants and convenience stores which use the fountain syrups to produce beverages for immediate consumption, or to authorized fountain wholesalers who in turn sell and distribute the fountain syrups to fountain retailers.
Our finished product operations consist primarily of Company-owned or -controlled bottling, sales and distribution operations which are included in our Bottling Investments operating segment. Our finished product operations generate net operating revenues by selling sparkling soft drinks and a variety of other nonalcoholic beverages, including water, enhanced water and sports drinks; juice, dairy and plant-based beverages; tea and coffee; and energy drinks, to retailers or to distributors, wholesalers and bottling partners who distribute them to retailers. In addition, in the United States, we manufacture fountain syrups and sell them to fountain retailers, such as restaurants and convenience stores who use the fountain syrups to produce beverages for immediate consumption, or to authorized fountain wholesalers or bottling partners who resell the fountain syrups to fountain retailers. These fountain syrup sales are included in our North America operating segment. We authorize these wholesalers to resell our fountain syrups through nonexclusive appointments that neither restrict us in setting the prices at which we sell fountain syrups to the wholesalers nor restrict the territories in which the wholesalers may resell in the United States.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Although these estimates are based on our knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates and assumptions. Furthermore, when testing assets for impairment in future periods, if management uses different assumptions or if different conditions occur, impairment charges may result.
Certain amounts in the prior years' consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been revised to conform to the current year presentation.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Company consolidates all entities that we control by ownership of a majority voting interest. Additionally, there are situations in which consolidation is required even though the usual condition of consolidation (ownership of a majority voting interest) does not apply. Generally, this occurs when an entity holds an interest in another business enterprise that was achieved through arrangements that do not involve voting interests, which results in a disproportionate relationship between such entity's voting interests in, and its exposure to the economic risks and potential rewards of, the other business enterprise. This disproportionate relationship results in what is known as a variable interest, and the entity in which we have the variable interest is referred to as a "VIE." An enterprise must consolidate a VIE if it is determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE. The primary beneficiary has both (1) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance, and (2) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were not determined to be the primary beneficiary. Our variable interests in these VIEs primarily relate to equity investments, profit guarantees or subordinated financial support. Refer to Note 11. Although these financial arrangements resulted in our holding variable interests in these entities, they did not empower us to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact the VIEs' economic performance. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, and other subordinated financial support related to these VIEs totaled $4,523 million and $3,709 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs were not individually significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In addition, our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were determined to be the primary beneficiary. As a result, we have consolidated these entities. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs totaled $1 million and $203 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The assets and liabilities of VIEs for which we are the primary beneficiary were not significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Creditors of our VIEs do not have recourse against the general credit of the Company, regardless of whether they are accounted for as consolidated entities.
We use the equity method to account for investments in companies if our investment provides us with the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. Our consolidated net income includes our Company's proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies. Our judgment regarding the level of influence over each equity method investee includes considering key factors such as our ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making decisions, other commercial arrangements and material intercompany transactions.
We eliminate from our financial results all significant intercompany transactions, including the intercompany transactions with consolidated VIEs and the intercompany portion of transactions with equity method investees.
Assets and Liabilities Held for Sale
Our Company classifies long-lived assets or disposal groups to be sold as held for sale in the period in which all of the following criteria are met: management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan to sell the asset or disposal group; the asset or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets or disposal groups; an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the asset or disposal group have been initiated; the sale of the asset or disposal group is probable, and transfer of the asset or disposal group is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year, except if events or circumstances beyond our control extend the period of time required to sell the asset or disposal group beyond one year; the asset or disposal group is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value; and actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.
We initially measure a long-lived asset or disposal group that is classified as held for sale at the lower of its carrying value or fair value less any costs to sell. Any loss resulting from this measurement is recognized in the period in which the held-for-sale criteria are met. Conversely, gains are not recognized on the sale of a long-lived asset or disposal group until the date of sale. We assess the fair value of a long-lived asset or disposal group less any costs to sell each reporting period it remains classified as held for sale and report any subsequent changes as an adjustment to the carrying value of the asset or disposal group, as long as the new carrying value does not exceed the carrying value of the asset at the time it was initially classified as held for sale.
Upon determining that a long-lived asset or disposal group meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale, the Company ceases depreciation and reports long-lived assets and/or the assets and liabilities of the disposal group, if material, in the line items assets held for sale and liabilities held for sale, respectively, in our consolidated balance sheet. Refer to Note 2.
When the following criteria are met: the disposal group is a component of an entity, the component of the entity meets the held for sale criteria in accordance with our policy described above and the component of the entity represents a strategic shift in the entity's operating and financial results, the disposal group is classified as a discontinued operation. Alternatively, if a business meets the criteria for held for sale on the acquisition date, the business is accounted for as a discontinued operation. In October 2017, the Company and Anheuser-Busch InBev ("ABI") completed the transition of ABI's controlling interest in Coca-Cola Beverages Africa Proprietary Limited ("CCBA") to the Company for $3,150 million, resulting in its consolidation. As CCBA met the criteria for held for sale upon consolidation, we have presented the financial position and results of operations of CCBA as discontinued operations in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Our Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery of products has occurred, the sales price charged is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. For our Company, this generally means that we recognize revenue when title to our products is transferred to our bottling partners, resellers or other customers. In particular, title usually transfers upon shipment to or receipt at our customers' locations, as determined by the specific sales terms of the transactions. Our sales terms do not allow for a right of return except for matters related to any manufacturing defects on our part.
Deductions from Revenue
Our customers can earn certain incentives including, but not limited to, cash discounts, funds for promotional and marketing activities, volume-based incentive programs and support for infrastructure programs. The costs associated with these incentives are included in deductions from revenue, a component of net operating revenues in our consolidated statements of income. For customer incentives that must be earned, management must make estimates related to the contractual terms, customer performance and sales volume to determine the total amounts earned and to be recorded in deductions from revenue. In making these estimates, management considers past results. The actual amounts ultimately paid may be different from our estimates.
In some situations, the Company may determine it to be advantageous to make advance payments to specific customers to fund certain marketing activities intended to generate profitable volume and/or invest in infrastructure programs with our bottlers that are directed at strengthening our bottling system and increasing unit case volume. The Company also makes advance payments to certain customers for distribution rights. The advance payments made to customers are initially capitalized and included in our consolidated balance sheets in prepaid expenses and other assets and noncurrent other assets, depending on the duration of the agreements. The assets are amortized over the applicable periods and included in deductions from revenue. The duration of these agreements typically ranges up to 10 years.
Amortization expense for infrastructure programs was $36 million, $45 million and $61 million in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The aggregate deductions from revenue recorded by the Company in relation to these programs, including amortization expense on infrastructure programs, were $6.2 billion, $6.6 billion and $6.8 billion in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Our Company expenses production costs of print, radio, television and other advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. All other marketing expenditures are expensed in the annual period in which the expenditure is incurred. Advertising costs included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income were $4 billion in 2017, 2016 and 2015. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, advertising and production costs of $95 million and $113 million, respectively, were primarily recorded in the line item prepaid expenses and other assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
For interim reporting purposes, we allocate our estimated full year marketing expenditures that benefit multiple interim periods to each of our interim reporting periods. We use the proportion of each interim period's actual unit case volume to the estimated full year unit case volume as the basis for the allocation. This methodology results in our marketing expenditures being recognized at a standard rate per unit case. At the end of each interim reporting period, we review our estimated full year unit case volume and our estimated full year marketing expenditures in order to evaluate if a change in estimate is necessary. The impact of any changes in these full year estimates is recognized in the interim period in which the change in estimate occurs. Our full year marketing expenditures are not impacted by this interim accounting policy.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs related to the movement of finished goods from manufacturing locations to our sales distribution centers are included in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statements of income. Shipping and handling costs incurred to move finished goods from our sales distribution centers to customer locations are included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income. During the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Company recorded shipping and handling costs of $1.1 billion, $2.0 billion and $2.5 billion, respectively, in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses. Our customers do not pay us separately for shipping and handling costs related to finished goods.
Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted net income per share is computed similarly to basic net income per share, except that it includes the potential dilution that could occur if dilutive securities were exercised. Approximately 47 million, 51 million and 27 million stock option awards were excluded from the computations of diluted net income per share in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, because the awards would have been antidilutive for the years presented.
The following table presents information related to net income from continuing operations and net income from discontinued operations attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (in millions):
We classify time deposits and other investments that are highly liquid and have maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase as cash equivalents. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk through specific minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties and procedures to monitor our credit risk concentrations.
We classify time deposits and other investments that have maturities of greater than three months but less than one year as short-term investments.
Investments in Equity and Debt Securities
We use the equity method to account for our investments in equity securities if our investment gives us the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. We include our proportionate share of earnings and/or losses of our equity method investees in equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. The carrying value of our equity investments is reported in equity method investments in our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 6.
We account for investments in companies that we do not control or account for under the equity method either at fair value or under the cost method, as applicable. Investments in equity securities, other than investments accounted for under the equity method, are carried at fair value if the fair value of the security is readily determinable. Equity investments carried at fair value are classified as either trading or available-for-sale securities with their cost basis determined by the specific identification method. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on trading securities and realized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are included in other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. Unrealized gains and losses, net of deferred taxes, on available-for-sale securities are included in our consolidated balance sheets as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI"), except for the change in fair value attributable to the currency risk being hedged, if applicable, which is included in other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. Trading securities are reported as either marketable securities or other assets in our consolidated balance sheets. Securities classified as available-for-sale are reported as either cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, other investments or other assets in our consolidated balance sheets, depending on the length of time we intend to hold the investment. Refer to Note 3.
Investments in equity securities that we do not control or account for under the equity method and do not have readily determinable fair values for are accounted for under the cost method. Cost method investments are originally recorded at cost, and we record dividend income when applicable dividends are declared. Cost method investments are reported as other investments in our consolidated balance sheets, and dividend income from cost method investments is reported in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
Our investments in debt securities are carried at either amortized cost or fair value. Investments in debt securities that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are carried at amortized cost and classified as held-to-maturity. Investments in debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity are carried at fair value and classified as either trading or available-for-sale.
Each reporting period we review all of our investments in equity and debt securities, except for those classified as trading, to determine whether a significant event or change in circumstances has occurred that may have an adverse effect on the fair value of each investment. When such events or changes occur, we evaluate the fair value compared to our cost basis in the investment. We also perform this evaluation every reporting period for each investment for which our cost basis exceeded the fair value. The fair values of most of our investments in publicly traded companies are often readily available based on quoted market prices. For investments in nonpublicly traded companies, management's assessment of fair value is based on valuation methodologies including discounted cash flows, estimates of sales proceeds, and appraisals, as appropriate. We consider the assumptions that we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use in evaluating estimated future cash flows when employing the discounted cash flow or estimates of sales proceeds valuation methodologies.
In the event the fair value of an investment declines below our cost basis, management is required to determine if the decline in fair value is other than temporary. If management determines the decline is other than temporary, an impairment charge is recorded. Management's assessment as to the nature of a decline in fair value is based on, among other things, the length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than our cost basis; the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer; and our intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
Trade Accounts Receivable
We record trade accounts receivable at net realizable value. This value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts to reflect any loss anticipated on the trade accounts receivable balances and charged to the provision for doubtful accounts. We calculate this allowance based on our history of write-offs, the level of past-due accounts based on the contractual terms of the receivables, and our relationships with, and the economic status of, our bottling partners and customers. We believe our exposure to concentrations of credit risk is limited due to the diverse geographic areas covered by our operations.
Activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows (in millions):
2 Other includes foreign currency translation adjustments and the impact of reclassifying certain assets to assets held for sale. Refer to Note 2.
A significant portion of our net operating revenues and corresponding accounts receivable is derived from sales of our products in international markets. Refer to Note 19. We also generate a significant portion of our net operating revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to bottlers in which we have a noncontrolling interest. Refer to Note 6.
Inventories consist primarily of raw materials and packaging (which includes ingredients and supplies) and finished goods (which include concentrates and syrups in our concentrate operations and finished beverages in our finished product operations). Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We determine cost on the basis of the average cost or first-in, first-out methods. Refer to Note 4.
Our Company, when deemed appropriate, uses derivatives as a risk management tool to mitigate the potential impact of certain market risks. The primary market risks managed by the Company through the use of derivative instruments are foreign currency exchange rate risk, commodity price risk and interest rate risk. All derivatives are carried at fair value in our consolidated balance sheets in the following line items, as applicable: prepaid expenses and other assets; other assets; accounts payable and accrued expenses; and other liabilities. The cash flow impact of the Company's derivative instruments is primarily included in our consolidated statements of cash flows in net cash provided by operating activities. Refer to Note 5.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Repair and maintenance costs that do not improve service potential or extend economic life are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is recorded principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of our assets, which are reviewed periodically and generally have the following ranges: buildings and improvements: 40 years or less; and machinery, equipment and vehicle fleet: 20 years or less. Land is not depreciated, and construction in progress is not depreciated until ready for service. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term, including renewals that are deemed to be reasonably assured, or the estimated useful life of the improvement. Depreciation is not recorded during the period in which a long-lived asset or disposal group is classified as held for sale, even if the asset or disposal group continues to generate revenue during the period. Depreciation expense, including the depreciation expense of assets under capital lease, totaled $1,131 million, $1,575 million and $1,735 million in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Amortization expense for leasehold improvements totaled $19 million, $22 million and $18 million in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Certain events or changes in circumstances may indicate that the recoverability of the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment should be assessed, including, among others, a significant decrease in market value, a significant change in the business climate in a particular market, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with historical losses or projected future losses. When such events or changes in circumstances are present, we estimate the future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of property, plant and equipment, including appraisals and discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. Refer to Note 7.
Goodwill, Trademarks and Other Intangible Assets
We classify intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization, (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization and (3) goodwill. We determine the useful lives of our identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors we consider when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company's long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or other local regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset, and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives, generally ranging from 1 to 20 years. Refer to Note 8.
When facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable, management assesses the recoverability of the carrying value by preparing estimates of sales volume and the resulting profit and cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of these assets, including discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use.
We test intangible assets determined to have indefinite useful lives, including trademarks, franchise rights and goodwill, for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that assets might be impaired. Our Company performs these annual impairment reviews as of the first day of our third fiscal quarter. We use a variety of methodologies in conducting impairment assessments of indefinite-lived intangible assets, including, but not limited to, discounted cash flow models, which are based on the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. For indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, if the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, rather than completing the impairment test. The Company must assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing described above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further assessment.
We perform impairment tests of goodwill at our reporting unit level, which is one level below our operating segments. Our operating segments are primarily based on geographic responsibility, which is consistent with the way management runs our business. Our operating segments are subdivided into smaller geographic regions or territories that we sometimes refer to as "business units." These business units are also our reporting units. The Bottling Investments operating segment includes all Company-owned or consolidated bottling operations, regardless of geographic location. Generally, each Company-owned or consolidated bottling operation within our Bottling Investments operating segment is its own reporting unit. Goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit or units that benefit from the synergies arising from each business combination.
In order to test for goodwill impairment, the Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value,
including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit is lower than its carrying amount, goodwill is written down for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. However, the loss recognized cannot exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. We typically use discounted cash flow models to determine the fair value of a reporting unit. The assumptions used in these models are consistent with those we believe a hypothetical marketplace participant would use. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of goodwill in order to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill and other intangible assets. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing discussed above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further testing.
Impairment charges related to intangible assets, including goodwill, are generally recorded in the line item other operating charges or, to the extent they relate to equity method investees, in the line item equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
Our Company is involved in various legal proceedings and tax matters. Due to their nature, such legal proceedings and tax matters involve inherent uncertainties including, but not limited to, court rulings, negotiations between affected parties and governmental actions. Management assesses the probability of loss for such contingencies and accrues a liability and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. Refer to Note 11.
Our Company sponsors equity plans that provide for the grant of awards including stock options, restricted stock units, restricted stock and performance share units. The fair value of our stock option grants is estimated on the grant date using a Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model. The Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the period the grant is earned by the employee, generally four years.
The fair value of our restricted stock units, restricted stock and certain performance share units is the quoted market value of the Company's stock on the grant date less the present value of the expected dividends not received during the relevant period. For most performance share units granted beginning in 2014, the Company includes a relative total shareowner return ("TSR") modifier to determine the number of shares earned at the end of the performance period. For these awards, the number of shares earned based on the certified achievement of the predefined performance criteria will be reduced or increased if the Company's total shareowner return over the performance period relative to a predefined compensation comparator group of companies falls outside of a defined range. The fair value of performance share units that include the TSR modifier is determined using a Monte Carlo valuation model.
In the period it becomes probable that the minimum performance criteria specified in the performance share award will be achieved, we recognize expense for the proportionate share of the total fair value of the award related to the vesting period that has already lapsed. The remaining fair value of the award is expensed on a straight-line basis over the balance of the vesting period. In the event the Company determines it is no longer probable that we will achieve the minimum performance criteria specified in the award, we reverse all of the previously recognized compensation expense in the period such a determination is made. The Company has made a policy election to estimate the number of awards that are expected to vest to determine the amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized in earnings. Forfeiture estimates are trued-up through the vesting date, in order to ensure that total compensation expense is recognized only for those awards that ultimately vest. Refer to Note 12.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans
Our Company sponsors and/or contributes to pension and postretirement health care and life insurance benefit plans covering substantially all U.S. employees. We also sponsor nonqualified, unfunded defined benefit pension plans for certain associates and participate in multi-employer pension plans in the United States. In addition, our Company and its subsidiaries have various pension plans and other forms of postretirement arrangements outside the United States. Refer to Note 13.
Income tax expense includes U.S., state, local and international income taxes, plus a provision for U.S. taxes on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries and other prescribed foreign entities not deemed to be indefinitely reinvested. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. The tax rate used to determine the deferred tax assets and liabilities is the enacted tax rate for the year and manner in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. The Company records taxes that are collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities on a net basis in our consolidated statements of income.
The Company is involved in various tax matters, with respect to some of which the outcome is uncertain. We establish reserves to remove some or all of the tax benefit of any of our tax positions at the time we determine that it becomes uncertain based upon one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is not "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but for a lesser amount, or (3) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but not in the financial period in which the tax position was originally taken. For purposes of evaluating whether or not a tax position is uncertain, (1) we presume the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information; (2) the technical merits of a tax position are derived from authorities such as legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings and case law and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position; and (3) each tax position is evaluated without consideration of the possibility of offset or aggregation with other tax positions taken. A number of years may elapse before a particular uncertain tax position is audited and finally resolved or when a tax assessment is raised. The number of years subject to tax assessments varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. The tax benefit that has been previously reserved because of a failure to meet the "more likely than not" recognition threshold would be recognized in income tax expense in the first interim period when the uncertainty disappears under any one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position, amount, and/or timing is ultimately settled through negotiation or litigation, or (3) the statute of limitations for the tax position has expired. Refer to Note 11 and Note 14.
Translation and Remeasurement
We translate the assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries from their respective functional currencies to U.S. dollars at the appropriate spot rates as of the balance sheet date. Generally, our foreign subsidiaries use the local currency as their functional currency. Changes in the carrying value of these assets and liabilities attributable to fluctuations in spot rates are recognized in foreign currency translation adjustment, a component of AOCI. Refer to Note 15. Income statement accounts are translated using the monthly average exchange rates during the year.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency that is different from a reporting entity's functional currency must first be remeasured from the applicable currency to the legal entity's functional currency. The effect of this remeasurement process is recognized in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income and is partially offset by the impact of our economic hedging program for certain exposures on our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 5.
A hyperinflationary economy is one that has cumulative inflation of 100 percent or more over a three-year period. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, local subsidiaries in hyperinflationary economies are required to use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency and remeasure the monetary assets and liabilities not denominated in U.S. dollars using the rate applicable to conversion of a currency for purposes of dividend remittances. All exchange gains and losses resulting from remeasurement are recognized currently in income.
Venezuela has been designated as a hyperinflationary economy. In February 2015, the Venezuelan government introduced a new open market exchange rate system, SIMADI. As a result, we remeasured the net monetary assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary, resulting in a charge of $27 million recorded in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Venezuelan government devalued its currency and changed its official and most preferential exchange rate, which should be used for purchases of certain essential goods, to 10 bolivars per U.S. dollar from 6.3. The official and most preferential rate is now known as DIPRO and the former official rate has been eliminated. The Venezuelan government replaced the SIMADI rate with the DICOM rate, which is allowed to float freely and is expected to fluctuate based on supply and demand. As a result, management determined that the DICOM rate was the most appropriate legally available rate to remeasure the net monetary assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary.
In addition, we sell concentrate to our bottling partner in Venezuela from outside the country. These sales are denominated in U.S. dollars. During the years ended December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, as a result of the continued lack of liquidity and our revised assessment of the U.S. dollar value we expect to realize upon the conversion of Venezuelan bolivars into U.S. dollars by our bottling partner to pay our concentrate sales receivables, we recorded write-downs of $76 million and $56 million, respectively. These write-downs were recorded in the line item other operating charges in our consolidated statements of income.
We also have certain U.S. dollar-denominated intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela. As a result of weaker sales, the volatility of foreign currency exchange rates resulting from continued instability and the Company's revised expectations regarding the convertibility of the local currency, we recognized impairment charges of $34 million and $55 million during the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2015, respectively. These charges were recorded in the line item other operating charges in our consolidated statements of income. As a result of these impairment charges, the remaining carrying value of all U.S. dollar-denominated intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela is zero.
Refer to Note 19 for the impact these items had on our operating segments.
Recently Issued Accounting Guidance
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP and is intended to improve and converge with international standards the financial reporting requirements for revenue from contracts with customers. The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is that an entity should recognize revenue for the transfer of goods or services equal to the amount that it expects to be entitled to receive for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 also requires additional disclosures about the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments. ASU 2014-09 allows for adoption either on a full retrospective basis to each prior reporting period presented or on a modified retrospective basis with the cumulative effect of initially applying the new guidance recognized at the date of initial application, which will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018.
The Company will adopt ASU 2014-09 and its amendments on a modified retrospective basis. We have closely assessed the new guidance, including the interpretations by the FASB Transition Resource Group for Revenue Recognition, throughout 2017. We have concluded that ASU 2014-09's broad definition of variable consideration will require the Company to estimate and record certain variable payments resulting from collaborative funding arrangements, rebates and other pricing allowances earlier than it currently does. While we do not expect this change to have a material impact on our net operating revenues on an annual basis, as revenue recognized from the sale of concentrate and finished goods occurs at a point in time when goods are transferred to the customer and the transfer of control is determined, we do expect that it will have an impact on our revenue in interim periods. The cumulative-effect adjustment upon adoption of the new revenue recognition standard as of January 1, 2018 is comprised primarily of the Company's estimated variable consideration and is expected to decrease the opening balance of retained earnings by less than $350 million, net of tax.
As a result of electing certain of the practical expedients available under the ASU, the Company expects there will be some reclassifications to or from net operating revenues, cost of goods sold, and selling, general and administrative expenses, primarily related to the classification of shipping and handling costs.
Additionally, the provisions of the new guidance provided clarification relating to the classification of certain costs incurred relating to revenue arrangements with customers. As a result, we will be classifying certain amounts in cost of goods sold or selling, general and administrative expenses that were previously classified as reductions in net operating revenues. The Company also evaluated the principal versus agent considerations as it relates to certain of its arrangements with third-party manufacturers and co-packers. We concluded that certain costs from these arrangements will be reflected in net operating revenues rather than in cost of goods sold. These changes will have no impact on the Company's consolidated operating income.
The Company has also identified and implemented changes to our accounting policies and practices, business processes, systems and controls, as well as designed and implemented specific controls over our evaluation of the impact of the new guidance on the Company, including the cumulative effect calculation, disclosure requirements and the collection of relevant data into the reporting process. While we are substantially complete with the process of quantifying the impacts that will result from applying the new guidance, our assessment will be finalized during the first quarter of 2018.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. The amendments in this update are intended to simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes and require that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a consolidated statement of financial position. The standard was prospectively adopted by the Company on January 1, 2017. Had the Company retrospectively adopted the standard as of December 31, 2016, the line items prepaid expenses and other assets and accounts payable and accrued expenses in our consolidated balance sheet would have been reduced by $80 million and $692 million, respectively, as a result of reclassifying the current deferred tax assets and liabilities. The offsetting impact for the reclassifications as of December 31, 2016 would have increased the noncurrent line items other assets and deferred income taxes in our consolidated balance sheet by $54 million and $666 million, respectively.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments — Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, which addresses certain aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. The amendment will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and will require us to recognize any changes in the fair value of certain equity investments in net income. These changes are currently recognized in other comprehensive income ("OCI"). We have evaluated the impact of this standard and will recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2018. We expect this cumulative effect adjustment to increase retained earnings by approximately $425 million.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, which requires lessees to recognize right-of-use assets, representing their right to use the underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for all leases with terms greater than 12 months. The guidance also requires qualitative and quantitative disclosures designed to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The Company has initiated its plan for the adoption and implementation of this new accounting standard, including assessing our lease arrangements, evaluating practical expedient and accounting policy elections, and implementing software to meet the reporting requirements of this standard. The Company is also in the process of identifying changes to our business processes and controls to support adoption of the new standard. The standard requires the use of a modified retrospective transition approach, which includes a number of optional practical expedients that entities may elect to apply. ASU 2016-02 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019. The Company anticipates the adoption of this new standard to result in a significant increase in lease-related assets and liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. The impact on the Company's consolidated statements of income is being evaluated. As the impact of this standard is non-cash in nature, we do not anticipate its adoption having an impact on the Company's consolidated statement of cash flows.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation — Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The standard is intended to simplify several areas of accounting for share-based compensation arrangements, including the income tax impact, classification on the statement of cash flows and forfeitures. The Company adopted ASU 2016-09 on January 1, 2017 by prospectively recognizing excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies in our consolidated statement of income as the awards vested or were settled. Effective January 1, 2017, the Company also prospectively presented excess tax benefits as an operating activity, rather than a financing activity, in our consolidated statement of cash flows. Had these changes been required to be adopted retrospectively, during the years ended December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company would have recognized an additional $130 million and $95 million, respectively, of excess tax benefits in our consolidated statements of income. Additionally, during the years ended December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company would have reduced our financing activities and increased our operating activities by $130 million and $95 million, respectively, in our consolidated statements of cash flows. The Company has elected, consistent with past practice, to estimate the number of awards that are expected to vest to determine the amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized in earnings.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. ASU 2016-13 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2020 and we are currently evaluating the impact that it will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and will be applied using the retrospective transition approach to all periods presented. We expect that the only impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-15 on our consolidated statement of cash flows will be the change in presentation related to our proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies. We currently reflect these proceeds in operating activities, however upon adoption of the new standard, we will reflect these proceeds in investing activities.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory, which requires the Company to recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. ASU 2016-16 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and will be applied using a modified retrospective basis. We currently expect the cumulative-effect adjustment will result in a net deferred tax asset of approximately $2.8 billion. This amount will primarily be recorded as a deferred tax asset in the line item other assets in our consolidated balance sheet.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Restricted Cash. The amendments in this update address diversity in practice that exists in the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash and require that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts that an entity defines as restricted cash for purposes of this standard or otherwise does not present in the line item cash and cash equivalents on its balance sheet. ASU 2016-18 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and is required to be applied using a retrospective transition method to all periods presented. We expect that adoption of ASU 2016-18 will change how we report changes in cash within our insurance captives and assets held for sale in our consolidated statement of cash flows.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business, which clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 is required to be applied prospectively and will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018. The impact on our consolidated financial statements will depend on the facts and circumstances of any specific future transactions.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost, which requires that the service cost component of the Company's net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost be included in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by employees, with the non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost being classified outside of a subtotal of income from operations. Of the components of net periodic benefit cost, only the service cost component will be eligible for asset capitalization. ASU 2017-07 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and is required to be applied retrospectively for all periods presented. We will elect to use the practical expedient which allows entities to use information previously disclosed in their pension and other postretirement benefit plans note as the estimation basis to apply the retrospective presentation requirements in this ASU. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we expect to reclassify $99 million and $31 million, respectively, related to our non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost and other benefit plan charges from operating income to other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and requires companies to recognize all elements of hedge accounting that impact earnings in the same income statement line item where the hedged item resides. The amendments include new alternatives for measuring the hedged item for fair value hedges of interest rate risk and ease the requirements for effectiveness testing, hedge documentation and applying the critical terms match method. Finally, the standard introduces new alternatives that permit companies to reduce the risk of material error if the shortcut method is misapplied. ASU 2017-12 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019 and is required to be applied prospectively. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2017-12 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the business description and accounting policies concepts. Business description describes the nature and type of organization including but not limited to organizational structure as may be applicable to holding companies, parent and subsidiary relationships, business divisions, business units, business segments, affiliates and information about significant ownership of the reporting entity. Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef