BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
When used in these notes, the terms "The Coca-Cola Company," "Company," "we," "us" and "our" mean The Coca-Cola Company and all entities included in our consolidated financial statements.
Description of Business
The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest nonalcoholic beverage company. We own or license and market more than 500 nonalcoholic beverage brands, which we group into the following category clusters: sparkling soft drinks; water, enhanced water and sports drinks; juice, dairy and plant-based beverages; tea and coffee; and energy drinks. We own and market four of the world's top five nonalcoholic sparkling soft drink brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. Finished beverage products bearing our trademarks, sold in the United States since 1886, are now sold in more than 200 countries and territories.
We make our branded beverage products available to consumers throughout the world through our network of independent bottling partners, distributors, wholesalers and retailers as well as Company-owned or -controlled bottling and distribution operations — the world's largest beverage distribution system ("Coca-Cola system"). Beverages bearing trademarks owned by or licensed to us account for more than 1.9 billion of the approximately 61 billion servings of all beverages consumed worldwide every day.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Although these estimates are based on our knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates and assumptions. Furthermore, when testing assets for impairment in future periods, if management uses different assumptions or if different conditions occur, impairment charges may result.
Certain prior year amounts in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been revised to conform to the current year presentation as a result of the adoption of certain accounting standards that became effective January 1, 2018, as applicable. Refer to the "Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance" section within this note below for further details.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Company consolidates all entities that we control by ownership of a majority voting interest. Additionally, there are situations in which consolidation is required even though the usual condition of consolidation (ownership of a majority voting interest) does not apply. Generally, this occurs when an entity holds an interest in another business enterprise that was achieved through arrangements that do not involve voting interests, which results in a disproportionate relationship between such entity's voting interests in, and its exposure to the economic risks and potential rewards of, the other business enterprise. This disproportionate relationship results in what is known as a variable interest, and the entity in which we have the variable interest is referred to as a "VIE." An enterprise must consolidate a VIE if it is determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE. The primary beneficiary has both (1) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and (2) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were not determined to be the primary beneficiary. Our variable interests in these VIEs primarily relate to equity investments, profit guarantees or subordinated financial support. Refer to Note 12. Although these financial arrangements resulted in our holding variable interests in these entities, they did not empower us to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact the VIEs' economic performance. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, and other subordinated financial support related to these VIEs totaled $3,916 million and $4,523 million as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs were not individually significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In addition, our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were determined to be the primary beneficiary. As a result, we have consolidated these entities. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs totaled $49 million and $1 million as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The assets and liabilities of VIEs for which we are the primary beneficiary were not significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Creditors of our VIEs do not have recourse against the general credit of the Company, regardless of whether they are accounted for as consolidated entities.
We use the equity method to account for investments in companies if our investment provides us with the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. Our consolidated net income includes our Company's proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies. Our judgment regarding the level of influence over each equity method investee includes considering key factors such as our ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making decisions, other commercial arrangements and material intercompany transactions.
We eliminate from our financial results all significant intercompany transactions, including the intercompany transactions with consolidated VIEs and the intercompany portion of transactions with equity method investees.
Assets and Liabilities Held for Sale
Our Company classifies long-lived assets or disposal groups to be sold as held for sale in the period in which all of the following criteria are met: (1) management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan to sell the asset or disposal group; (2) the asset or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets or disposal groups; (3) an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the asset or disposal group have been initiated; (4) the sale of the asset or disposal group is probable, and transfer of the asset or disposal group is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year, except if events or circumstances beyond our control extend the period of time required to sell the asset or disposal group beyond one year; (5) the asset or disposal group is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value; and (6) actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.
We initially measure a long-lived asset or disposal group that is classified as held for sale at the lower of its carrying value or fair value less any costs to sell. Any loss resulting from this measurement is recognized in the period in which the held-for-sale criteria are met. Conversely, gains are not recognized on the sale of a long-lived asset or disposal group until the date of sale. We assess the fair value of a long-lived asset or disposal group less any costs to sell each reporting period it remains classified as held for sale and report any subsequent changes as an adjustment to the carrying value of the asset or disposal group, as long as the new carrying value does not exceed the carrying value of the asset at the time it was initially classified as held for sale.
Upon determining that a long-lived asset or disposal group meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale, the Company ceases depreciation and reports long-lived assets and/or the assets and liabilities of the disposal group, if material, in the line items assets held for sale and liabilities held for sale, respectively, in our consolidated balance sheet. Refer to Note 2.
A disposal group is classified as a discontinued operation when the following criteria are met: (1) the disposal group is a component of an entity; (2) the component of the entity meets the held-for-sale criteria in accordance with our policy described above; and (3) the component of the entity represents a strategic shift in the entity's operating and financial results. Alternatively, if a business meets the criteria for held for sale on the acquisition date, the business is accounted for as a discontinued operation. In October 2017, the Company and Anheuser-Busch InBev ("ABI") completed the transition of ABI's controlling interest in Coca-Cola Beverages Africa Proprietary Limited ("CCBA") to the Company for $3,150 million, resulting in its consolidation. As CCBA met the criteria for held for sale upon consolidation, we have presented the financial position and results of operations of CCBA as discontinued operations in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"). Revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of the contracts with our customers are satisfied. Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, we recognized revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement existed, delivery of products had occurred, the sales price was fixed or determinable and collectibility was reasonably assured. Refer to Note 3.
Our Company expenses production costs of print, radio, television and other advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. All other marketing expenditures are expensed in the annual period in which the expenditure is incurred. Advertising costs included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income were $4 billion in 2018, 2017 and 2016. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, advertising and production costs of $54 million and $95 million, respectively, were primarily recorded in the line item prepaid expenses and other assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
For interim reporting purposes, we allocate our estimated full year marketing expenditures that benefit multiple interim periods to each of our interim reporting periods. We use the proportion of each interim period's actual unit case volume to the estimated full year unit case volume as the basis for the allocation. This methodology results in our marketing expenditures being recognized at a standard rate per unit case. At the end of each interim reporting period, we review our estimated full year unit case volume and our estimated full year marketing expenditures in order to evaluate if a change in estimate is necessary. The impact of any changes in these full year estimates is recognized in the interim period in which the change in estimate occurs. Our full year marketing expenditures are not impacted by this interim accounting policy.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs related to the movement of goods from our manufacturing locations to our sales distribution centers are included in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statements of income. Shipping and handling costs incurred to move goods from our manufacturing locations or sales distribution centers to our customers are also included in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statements of income, except for costs incurred to distribute goods sold by our Company-owned bottlers to our customers, which are included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses. Our customers generally do not pay us separately for shipping and handling costs. Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606. Upon adoption, we made a policy election to recognize the cost of shipping and handling activities that are performed after a customer obtains control of the goods as costs to fulfill our promise to provide goods to the customer. As a result of this election, the Company does not evaluate whether shipping and handling activities are services promised to customers. If revenue is recognized for the related goods before the shipping and handling activities occur, the related costs of those shipping and handling activities are accrued. Refer to Note 3 for additional information regarding revenue recognition.
Sales, Use, Value-Added and Excise Taxes
The Company collects taxes imposed directly on its customers related to sales, use, value-added, excise and other similar taxes. The Company then remits such taxes on behalf of its customers to the applicable governmental authorities. Upon adoption of ASC 606, we made a policy election to exclude from net operating revenues the tax amounts imposed on revenue-producing transactions that were collected from our customers to be remitted to governmental authorities. Accordingly, such tax amounts are recorded in the line item trade accounts receivable in our consolidated balance sheet when collection of taxes from the customer has not yet occurred and are recorded in the line item accounts payable and accrued expenses in our consolidated balance sheet until they are remitted to the applicable governmental authorities. Taxes imposed directly on the Company, whether based on receipts from sales, inventory procurement costs or manufacturing activities, are recorded in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statement of income. Refer to Note 3 for additional information regarding revenue recognition.
Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted net income per share is computed similarly to basic net income per share, except that it includes the potential dilution that could occur if dilutive securities were exercised. Approximately 51 million, 47 million and 51 million stock option awards were excluded from the computations of diluted net income per share in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, because the awards would have been antidilutive for the years presented.
The following table presents information related to net income from continuing operations and net income from discontinued operations (in millions):
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Restricted Cash Equivalents
We classify time deposits and other investments that are highly liquid and have maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase as cash equivalents or restricted cash equivalents, as applicable. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents generally consist of amounts held by our captive insurance companies, which are included in the line item other assets on our consolidated balance sheets, and amounts classified in assets held for sale and assets held for sale — discontinued operations. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk through specific minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties and procedures to monitor our concentrations of credit risk.
The following table provides a summary of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents that constitute the total amounts shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows (in millions):
1 Amounts represent cash and cash equivalents in our solvency capital portfolio set aside primarily to cover pension obligations in certain of
our European and Canadian pension plans. Refer to Note 4.
We classify time deposits and other investments that have maturities of greater than three months but less than one year as short-term investments.
Investments in Equity and Debt Securities
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2016-01 Financial Instruments — Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities ("ASU 2016-01"), which requires us to measure all equity investments that do not result in consolidation and are not accounted for under the equity method at fair value and recognize any changes in earnings. For equity securities without readily determinable fair values, we have elected the measurement alternative under which we measure these investments at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-01, marketable equity securities not accounted for under the equity method were classified as trading or available-for-sale. Both realized and unrealized gains and losses on equity securities classified as trading securities were recognized in net income. For equity securities classified as available-for-sale, realized gains and losses were included in net income. Unrealized gains and losses on equity securities classified as available-for-sale were recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI"), net of tax. Equity securities without readily determinable fair values were recorded at cost. Our investments in debt securities are carried at either amortized cost or fair value. Investments in debt securities that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are carried at amortized cost and classified as held-to-maturity. Investments in debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity are carried at fair value and classified as either trading or available-for-sale. Refer to Note 4 for additional information on our policy for investments which include our assessment of impairments.
Trade Accounts Receivable
We record trade accounts receivable at net realizable value. This value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts to reflect any loss anticipated on the trade accounts receivable balances and charged to the provision for doubtful accounts. We calculate this allowance based on our history of write-offs, the level of past-due accounts based on the contractual terms of the receivables, and our relationships with, and the economic status of, our bottling partners and customers. We believe our exposure to concentrations of credit risk is limited due to the diverse geographic areas covered by our operations.
Activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows (in millions):
2 Other includes foreign currency translation adjustments and the impact of reclassifying certain assets to assets held for sale. Refer to Note 2.
A significant portion of our net operating revenues and corresponding accounts receivable is derived from sales of our products in international markets. Refer to Note 3 and Note 20. We also generate a significant portion of our net operating revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to bottlers in which we have a noncontrolling interest. Refer to Note 7.
Our Company, when deemed appropriate, uses derivatives as a risk management tool to mitigate the potential impact of certain market risks. The primary market risks managed by the Company through the use of derivative instruments are foreign currency exchange rate risk, commodity price risk and interest rate risk. All derivatives are carried at fair value in our consolidated balance sheets in the following line items, as applicable: prepaid expenses and other assets; other assets; accounts payable and accrued expenses; and other liabilities. The cash flow impact of the Company's derivative instruments is primarily included in our consolidated statements of cash flows in net cash provided by operating activities. Refer to Note 6.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Repair and maintenance costs that do not improve service potential or extend economic life are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is recorded principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of our assets, which are reviewed periodically and generally have the following ranges: buildings and improvements: 40 years or less; and machinery, equipment and vehicle fleet: 20 years or less. Land is not depreciated, and construction in progress is not depreciated until ready for service. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term, including renewals that are deemed to be reasonably assured, or the estimated useful life of the improvement. Depreciation is not recorded during the period in which a long-lived asset or disposal group is classified as held for sale, even if the asset or disposal group continues to generate revenue during the period. Depreciation expense, including the depreciation expense of assets under capital lease, totaled $999 million, $1,131 million and $1,575 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Amortization expense for leasehold improvements totaled $18 million, $19 million and $22 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Refer to Note 8.
Certain events or changes in circumstances may indicate that the recoverability of the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment should be assessed, including, among others, a significant decrease in market value, a significant change in the business climate in a particular market, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with historical losses or projected future losses. When such events or changes in circumstances are present and an impairment test is performed, we estimate the future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of property, plant and equipment, including appraisals and discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. Refer to Note 17.
Goodwill, Trademarks and Other Intangible Assets
We classify intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization, (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization and (3) goodwill. We determine the useful lives of our identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors we consider when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company's long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or other local regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset, and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives, generally ranging from 1 to 20 years. Refer to Note 9.
When facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable, management assesses the recoverability of the carrying value by preparing estimates of sales volume and the resulting profit and cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of these assets, including discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use.
We test intangible assets determined to have indefinite useful lives, including trademarks, franchise rights and goodwill, for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that assets might be impaired. Our Company performs these annual impairment tests as of the first day of our third fiscal quarter. We use a variety of methodologies in conducting impairment assessments of indefinite-lived intangible assets, including, but not limited to, discounted cash flow models, which are based on the assumptions we believe hypothetical marketplace participants would use. For indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, if the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, rather than completing the impairment test. The Company must assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing described above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further assessment.
We perform impairment tests of goodwill at our reporting unit level, which is one level below our operating segments. Our operating segments are primarily based on geographic responsibility, which is consistent with the way management runs our business. Our operating segments are subdivided into smaller geographic regions or territories that we sometimes refer to as "business units." These business units are also our reporting units. The Bottling Investments operating segment includes all Company-owned or consolidated bottling operations, regardless of geographic location. Generally, each Company-owned or consolidated bottling operation within our Bottling Investments operating segment is its own reporting unit. Goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit or units that benefit from the synergies arising from each business combination.
In order to test for goodwill impairment, the Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value,
including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit is lower than its carrying amount, goodwill is written down for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. However, the loss recognized cannot exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. We typically use discounted cash flow models to determine the fair value of a reporting unit. The assumptions used in these models are consistent with those we believe a hypothetical marketplace participant would use. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of goodwill in order to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill and other intangible assets. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing discussed above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further testing.
Impairment charges related to intangible assets, including goodwill, are generally recorded in the line item other operating charges or, to the extent they relate to equity method investees, in the line item equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income.
Our Company is involved in various legal proceedings and tax matters. Due to their nature, such legal proceedings and tax matters involve inherent uncertainties including, but not limited to, court rulings, negotiations between affected parties and governmental actions. Management assesses the probability of loss for such contingencies and accrues a liability and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. Refer to Note 12.
Our Company grants awards under its stock-based compensation plans to certain employees of the Company. These awards include stock options, restricted stock units, restricted stock and performance–based share units. The fair value of our stock option grants is estimated on the grant date using a Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model. The Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the period the stock option grant is earned by the employee, generally four years.
The fair value of our restricted stock units, restricted stock and certain performance-based share units is the quoted market value of the Company's stock on the grant date less the present value of the expected dividends not received during the relevant period. For most performance-based share units granted from 2014 to 2017 and for performance-based share units granted to executives in 2018, the Company includes a relative total shareowner return ("TSR") modifier to determine the number of shares earned at the end of the performance period. For these awards, the number of shares earned based on the certified achievement of the predefined performance criteria will be reduced or increased if the Company's total shareowner return over the performance period relative to a predefined compensation comparator group of companies falls outside of a defined range. The fair value of performance-based share units that include the TSR modifier is determined using a Monte Carlo valuation model.
In the period it becomes probable that the minimum performance threshold specified in the performance-based share award will be achieved, we recognize expense for the proportionate share of the total fair value of the award related to the vesting period that has already lapsed. The remaining fair value of the award is expensed on a straight-line basis over the balance of the vesting period. In the event the Company determines it is no longer probable that we will achieve the minimum performance threshold specified in the award, we reverse all of the previously recognized compensation expense in the period such a determination is made.
The Company has made a policy election to estimate the number of stock-based compensation awards that are expected to vest to determine the amount of compensation expense recognized in earnings. Forfeiture estimates are trued-up through the vesting date, in order to ensure that total compensation expense is recognized only for those awards that ultimately vest. Refer to Note 13.
Income tax expense includes U.S., state, local and international income taxes, plus a provision for U.S. taxes on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries and other prescribed foreign entities not deemed to be indefinitely reinvested. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. The tax rate used to determine the deferred tax assets and liabilities is the enacted tax rate for the year and manner in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. The Company records taxes that are collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities on a net basis in our consolidated statements of income.
The Company is involved in various tax matters, with respect to some of which the outcome is uncertain. We establish reserves to remove some or all of the tax benefit of any of our tax positions at the time we determine that it becomes uncertain based upon one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is not "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but for a lesser amount, or (3) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but not in the financial period in which the tax position was originally taken. For purposes of evaluating whether or not a tax position is uncertain, (1) we presume the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information; (2) the technical merits of a tax position are derived from authorities such as legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings and case law and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position; and (3) each tax position is evaluated without consideration of the possibility of offset or aggregation with other tax positions taken. A number of years may elapse before a particular uncertain tax position is audited and finally resolved or when a tax assessment is raised. The number of years subject to tax assessments varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. The tax benefit that has been previously reserved because of a failure to meet the "more likely than not" recognition threshold would be recognized in income tax expense in the first interim period when the uncertainty disappears under any one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position, amount, and/or timing is ultimately settled through negotiation or litigation, or (3) the statute of limitations for the tax position has expired. Refer to Note 12 and Note 15.
Translation and Remeasurement
We translate the assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries from their respective functional currencies to U.S. dollars at the appropriate spot rates as of the balance sheet date. Generally, our foreign subsidiaries use the local currency as their functional currency. Changes in the carrying value of these assets and liabilities attributable to fluctuations in spot rates are recognized in foreign currency translation adjustment, a component of AOCI. Refer to Note 16. Income statement accounts are translated using the monthly average exchange rates during the year.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency that is different from a reporting entity's functional currency must first be remeasured from the applicable currency to the legal entity's functional currency. The effect of this remeasurement process is recognized in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income and is partially offset by the impact of our economic hedging program for certain exposures on our consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 6.
A hyperinflationary economy is one that has cumulative inflation of 100 percent or more over a three-year period. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, local subsidiaries in hyperinflationary economies are required to use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency and remeasure the monetary assets and liabilities not denominated in U.S. dollars using the rate applicable to conversion of a currency for purposes of dividend remittances. All exchange gains and losses resulting from remeasurement are recognized currently in income.
Venezuela has been designated as a hyperinflationary economy. During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Venezuelan government devalued its currency and changed its official and most preferential exchange rate, which should be used for purchases of certain essential goods, to 10 bolivars per U.S. dollar from 6.3. The official and most preferential rate is now known as DIPRO and the former official rate has been eliminated. The Venezuelan government replaced the former open market exchange rate with the DICOM rate, which is allowed to float freely and is expected to fluctuate based on supply and demand. As a result, management determined that the DICOM rate was the most appropriate legally available rate to remeasure the net monetary assets of our Venezuelan subsidiary.
We sell concentrate to our bottling partner in Venezuela from outside the country. These sales are denominated in U.S. dollars. During the year ended December 31, 2016, as a result of the continued lack of liquidity and our revised assessment of the U.S. dollar value we expected to realize upon the conversion of Venezuelan bolivars into U.S. dollars by our bottling partner to pay our concentrate sales receivables, we recorded a write-down of $76 million, which was recorded in the line item other operating charges in our consolidated statement of income.
We also have certain U.S. dollar-denominated intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela. As a result of weaker sales, the volatility of foreign currency exchange rates resulting from continued instability and the Company's revised expectations regarding the convertibility of the local currency, we recognized an impairment charge of $34 million during the year ended December 31, 2017, which was recorded in the line item other operating charges in our consolidated statement of income. As a result of this impairment charge, the remaining carrying value of all U.S. dollar-denominated intangible assets associated with products sold in Venezuela is zero.
Refer to Note 20 for the impact these items had on our operating segments and Corporate.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which replaces most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP and is intended to improve and converge with international standards the financial reporting requirements for revenue from contracts with customers. ASU 2014-09 and its amendments were included primarily in ASC 606. The core principle of ASC 606 is that an entity should recognize revenue for the transfer of goods or services equal to the amount that it expects to be entitled to receive for those goods or services. ASC 606 also requires additional disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments. We adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method. We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to decrease the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2018 by $257 million, net of tax. The Company has changed our accounting policies and practices, business processes, systems and controls, as well as designed and implemented specific controls over our evaluation of the impact of the new guidance on the Company, including the cumulative effect calculation, disclosure requirements and the collection of relevant data for the reporting process. Refer to Note 3.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, which addresses certain aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018, and we are now recognizing any changes in the fair value of certain equity investments in net income as prescribed by the new standard rather than in other comprehensive income ("OCI"). We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2018 by $409 million, net of tax. Refer to Note 4 for additional disclosures required by this ASU.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation — Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The standard is intended to simplify several areas of accounting for share-based compensation arrangements, including the income tax impact, classification on the statement of cash flows and forfeitures. The Company adopted ASU 2016-09 on January 1, 2017 by prospectively recognizing excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies in our consolidated statement of income as the awards vested or were settled. Effective January 1, 2017, the Company also prospectively presented excess tax benefits as an operating activity, rather than a financing activity, in our consolidated statement of cash flows. Had these changes been required to be adopted retrospectively, during the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company would have recognized an additional $130 million of excess tax benefits in our consolidated statement of income. Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company would have reduced our financing activities and increased our operating activities by $130 million in our consolidated statement of cash flows. The Company has elected, consistent with past practice, to estimate the number of awards that are expected to vest to determine the amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized in earnings.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. ASU 2016-15 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted using the retrospective transition approach to all periods presented. The impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-15 on our consolidated statement of cash flows was a change in presentation related to our proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies. We revised our consolidated statement of cash flows to reflect these proceeds in the line item other investing activities, which were previously presented in the line item net change in operating assets and liabilities. During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the amount of proceeds received from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies was $65 million and $3 million, respectively.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory ("ASU 2016-16"), which requires the Company to recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. ASU 2016-16 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted using a modified retrospective basis. We recorded a $2.9 billion cumulative effect adjustment to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings, with the majority of the offset being recorded in the line item deferred income tax assets in our consolidated balance sheet. Refer to Note 15.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Restricted Cash. The amendments in this update address diversity in practice that exists in the classification and presentation of changes in amounts generally described as restricted cash and require that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents and amounts that an entity defines as restricted cash for purposes of this standard or otherwise does not present in the line item cash and cash equivalents on its balance sheet. ASU 2016-18 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted using the retrospective transition method to all periods presented.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-18, we presented the transfer of cash and cash equivalents into or out of our captive insurance companies in the line items purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments in our consolidated statement of cash flows. We did not present the purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments within our captive insurance companies. Cash flows related to cash and cash equivalents included in our insurance captives are now presented in the line items purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments within the investing activities section of our consolidated statement of cash flows. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments within our captive insurance companies were $777 million and $773 million, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2016, the purchases of investments and proceeds from disposals of investments within our captive insurance companies were $1,388 million and $1,304 million, respectively.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-18, we treated the change in cash and cash equivalents included in assets held for sale as an adjustment to the line item other investing activities within our consolidated statement of cash flows. With the adoption of this ASU, we no longer make this adjustment and we revised the prior year to remove this adjustment. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the change in cash and cash equivalents included in assets held for sale was $36 million. During the year ended December 31, 2016, the change in cash and cash equivalents included in assets held for sale was $94 million. Refer to the heading "Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Restricted Cash Equivalents" above for additional disclosures required by this ASU.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost, which requires that the service cost component of the Company's net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost be included in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by employees, with the non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost and other benefit plan charges and credits being classified outside of a subtotal of income from operations. ASU 2017-07 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted retrospectively for the presentation of the other components of net periodic benefit cost and other benefit plan charges and credits in our consolidated statements of income. As part of our adoption, we elected to use a practical expedient which allows us to use information previously disclosed in our note on pension and other postretirement benefit plans as the estimation basis for applying the retrospective presentation requirements of this ASU. During the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we reclassified $98 million and $31 million of expense, respectively, related to our non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost and other benefit plan charges and credits from operating income to other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statements of income. Refer to Note 14 for additional disclosures required by this ASU.
In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-05, Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118. The amendments in this update provide guidance on when to record and disclose provisional amounts for certain income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Reform Act"). The amendments also require any provisional amounts or subsequent adjustments to be included in net income from continuing operations. Additionally, this ASU discusses required disclosures that an entity must make with regard to the Tax Reform Act. This ASU is effective immediately as new information is available to adjust provisional amounts that were previously recorded. The Company adopted this standard and subsequently finalized the accounting based on the guidance, interpretations and data available as of December 31, 2018. Refer to Note 15 for additional information on the Tax Reform Act.
Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, which requires lessees to recognize right-of-use assets, representing their right to use the underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for all leases with terms greater than 12 months. The guidance also modifies the classification criteria and the accounting for sales-type and direct financing leases by lessors. Additionally, the guidance requires qualitative and quantitative disclosures designed to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The Company has substantially completed its preparation for the adoption of this new accounting standard. This included assessing the completeness of our lease arrangements, evaluating practical expedients and accounting policy elections, executing changes to our business process, which include our systems and controls, and implementing software to meet the reporting requirements of this standard.
ASU 2016-02 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019. The standard requires the use of a modified retrospective transition approach, which includes a number of optional practical expedients that entities may elect to apply. The Company expects to elect certain practical expedients, including the package of practical expedients to not reassess prior conclusions related to contracts containing leases, lease classification and initial direct costs, and is evaluating the other practical expedients available under the guidance. The Company also plans to elect the optional transition method that will give companies the option to use the effective date as the date of initial application on transition, and as a result, we will not adjust our comparative period financial information or make the new required lease disclosures for periods before the effective date. The Company anticipates the adoption of this new standard will result in an increase of approximately 1 percent of total assets and liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet. This estimate does not include transactions that closed in the first quarter of 2019, such as Costa Limited ("Costa"). While we are substantially complete with the process of quantifying the impacts that will result from applying the new guidance, our assessment will be finalized during the first quarter of 2019. We do not expect the new standard to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated statement of income. As the impact of this standard is noncash in nature, we do not anticipate its adoption having an impact on the Company's consolidated statement of cash flows.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and requires companies to recognize all elements of hedge accounting that impact earnings in the same line item in the statement of income where the hedged item resides. The amendments include new alternatives for measuring the hedged item for fair value hedges of interest rate risk and ease the requirements for effectiveness testing, hedge documentation and applying the critical terms match method. Finally, the standard introduces new alternatives that permit companies to reduce the risk of material error if the shortcut method is misapplied. ASU 2017-12 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019 and is required to be applied prospectively. The adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated balance sheet, statement of income or statement of cash flows.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, which permits entities to reclassify the disproportionate income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act on items within accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI") to reinvested earnings. These disproportionate income tax effect items are referred to as "stranded tax effects." Amendments in this update only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act. Other accounting guidance that requires the effect of changes in tax laws or rates to be included in net income from continuing operations is not affected by this update. ASU 2018-02 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019 and should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Reform Act is recognized. We have elected to apply this standard in the period of adoption and will recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2019. We expect this cumulative effect adjustment to increase reinvested earnings by approximately $500 million.
The entire disclosure for the business description and accounting policies concepts. Business description describes the nature and type of organization including but not limited to organizational structure as may be applicable to holding companies, parent and subsidiary relationships, business divisions, business units, business segments, affiliates and information about significant ownership of the reporting entity. Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef