BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
When used in these notes, the terms "The Coca-Cola Company," "Company," "we," "us" and "our" mean The Coca-Cola Company and all entities included in our consolidated financial statements.
Description of Business
The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest nonalcoholic beverage company. We own or license and market numerous nonalcoholic beverage brands, which we group into the following category clusters: sparkling soft drinks; water, enhanced water and sports drinks; juice, dairy and plant-based beverages; tea and coffee; and energy drinks. We own and market four of the world's top five nonalcoholic sparkling soft drink brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. Finished beverage products bearing our trademarks, sold in the United States since 1886, are now sold in more than 200 countries and territories.
We make our branded beverage products available to consumers throughout the world through our network of independent bottling partners, distributors, wholesalers and retailers as well as the Company's consolidated bottling and distribution operations — the world's largest nonalcoholic beverage distribution system. Beverages bearing trademarks owned by or licensed to us account for 1.9 billion of the approximately 62 billion servings of all beverages consumed worldwide every day.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Although these estimates are based on our knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates and assumptions. Furthermore, when testing assets for impairment in future periods, if management uses different assumptions or if different conditions occur, impairment charges may result.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Company consolidates all entities that we control by ownership of a majority voting interest. Additionally, there are situations in which consolidation is required even though the usual condition of consolidation (ownership of a majority voting interest) does not apply. Generally, this occurs when an entity holds an interest in another business enterprise that was achieved through arrangements that do not involve voting interests, which results in a disproportionate relationship between such entity's voting interests in, and its exposure to the economic risks and potential rewards of, the other business enterprise. This disproportionate relationship results in what is known as a variable interest, and the entity in which we have the variable interest is referred to as a "VIE." An enterprise must consolidate a VIE if it is determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE. The primary beneficiary has both (1) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance and (2) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were not determined to be the primary beneficiary. Our variable interests in these VIEs primarily relate to equity investments, profit guarantees or subordinated financial support. Refer to Note 11. Although these financial arrangements resulted in our holding variable interests in these entities, they did not empower us to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact the VIEs' economic performance. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, and other subordinated financial support related to these VIEs totaled $2,567 million and $3,179 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs were not individually significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In addition, our Company holds interests in certain VIEs, primarily bottling and container manufacturing operations, for which we were determined to be the primary beneficiary. As a result, we have consolidated these entities. Our Company's investments, plus any loans and guarantees, related to these VIEs totaled $74 million and $51 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, representing our maximum exposures to loss. The assets and liabilities of VIEs for which we are the primary beneficiary were not significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Creditors of our VIEs do not have recourse against the general credit of the Company, regardless of whether they are accounted for as consolidated entities.
We use the equity method to account for investments in companies if our investment provides us with the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. Our consolidated net income includes our Company's proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies. Our judgment regarding the level of influence over each equity method investee includes considering key factors such as our ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making decisions, other commercial arrangements and material intercompany transactions.
We eliminate from our financial results all significant intercompany transactions, including the intercompany transactions with consolidated VIEs and the intercompany portion of transactions with equity method investees.
Our Company recognizes revenue when performance obligations under the terms of the contracts with our customers are satisfied. Our performance obligation generally consists of the promise to sell concentrates, syrups or finished products to our bottling partners, wholesalers, distributors or retailers. Refer to Note 3.
Our Company expenses production costs of print, radio, television and other advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. All other marketing expenditures are expensed in the annual period in which the expenditure is incurred. Advertising costs included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of income were $3 billion in 2020 and $4 billion in 2019 and 2018. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, advertising and production costs of $83 million and $55 million, respectively, were primarily recorded in the line item prepaid expenses and other assets in our consolidated balance sheets.
For interim reporting purposes, we allocate our estimated full year marketing expenditures that benefit multiple interim periods to each of our interim reporting periods. We use the proportion of each interim period's actual unit case volume to the estimated full year unit case volume as the basis for the allocation. This methodology results in our marketing expenditures being recognized at a standard rate per unit case. At the end of each interim reporting period, we review our estimated full year unit case volume and our estimated full year marketing expenditures in order to evaluate if a change in estimate is necessary. The impact of any changes in these full year estimates is recognized in the interim period in which the change in estimate occurs. Our full year marketing expenditures are not impacted by this interim accounting policy.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs related to the movement of goods from our manufacturing locations to our sales distribution centers are included in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statement of income. Shipping and handling costs incurred to move goods from our manufacturing locations or sales distribution centers to our customers are also included in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statement of income, except for costs incurred to distribute goods sold by our consolidated bottlers to our customers, which are included in the line item selling, general and administrative expenses. Our customers generally do not pay us separately for shipping and handling costs. We recognize the cost of shipping and handling activities that are performed after a customer obtains control of the goods as costs to fulfill our promise to provide goods to the customer. As a result of this election, the Company does not evaluate whether shipping and handling activities are services promised to customers. If revenue is recognized for the related goods before the shipping and handling activities occur, the related costs of those shipping and handling activities are accrued.
Sales, Use, Value-Added and Excise Taxes
The Company collects taxes imposed directly on its customers related to sales, use, value-added, excise and other similar taxes. The Company then remits such taxes on behalf of its customers to the applicable governmental authorities. We exclude from net operating revenues the tax amounts imposed on revenue-producing transactions that were collected from our customers to be remitted to governmental authorities. Accordingly, such tax amounts are recorded in the line item trade accounts receivable in our consolidated balance sheet when collection of taxes from the customer has not yet occurred and are recorded in the line item accounts payable and accrued expenses in our consolidated balance sheet until they are remitted to the applicable governmental authorities. Taxes imposed directly on the Company, whether based on receipts from sales, inventory procurement costs or manufacturing activities, are recorded in the line item cost of goods sold in our consolidated statement of income.
Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted net income per share is computed similarly to basic net income per share, except that it includes the potential dilution that could occur if dilutive securities were exercised. Approximately 6 million and 5 million stock option awards were excluded from the computations of diluted net income per share in 2020 and 2018, respectively, because the awards would have been antidilutive for the years presented. The number of stock option awards excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share in 2019 was insignificant.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Restricted Cash Equivalents
We classify time deposits and other investments that are highly liquid and have maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase as cash equivalents or restricted cash equivalents, as applicable. Restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents generally consist of amounts held by our captive insurance companies, which are included in the line item other assets on our consolidated balance sheet. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk through specific minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties and procedures to monitor our concentrations of credit risk.
The following table provides a summary of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents that constitute the total amounts shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows (in millions):
1 Amounts represent restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in our solvency capital portfolio set aside primarily to cover pension obligations in certain of our European and Canadian pension plans. Refer to Note 4.
We classify time deposits and other investments that have maturities of greater than three months but less than one year as short-term investments.
Investments in Equity and Debt Securities
We measure all equity investments that do not result in consolidation and are not accounted for under the equity method at fair value with the change in fair value included in net income. We use quoted market prices to determine the fair value of equity securities with readily determinable fair values. For equity securities without readily determinable fair values, we have elected the measurement alternative under which we measure these investments at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer. Management assesses each of these investments on an individual basis. Our investments in debt securities are carried at either amortized cost or fair value. Investments in debt securities that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are carried at amortized cost and classified as held-to-maturity. Investments in debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity are carried at fair value and classified as either trading or available-for-sale. Refer to Note 4 for additional information on our policy for investments, which includes our assessment of impairments.
Trade Accounts Receivable
We record trade accounts receivable at net realizable value. This value includes an appropriate allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts to reflect any expected loss on the trade accounts receivable balances and charged to the provision for doubtful accounts. We calculate this allowance based on available relevant information, in addition to historical loss information, the level of past-due accounts based on the contractual terms of the receivables, and our relationships with, and the economic status of, our bottling partners and customers. We believe our exposure to concentrations of credit risk is limited due to the diverse geographic areas covered by our operations.
In the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company started a trade accounts receivable factoring program in certain countries. Under this program we can elect to sell trade accounts receivables to unaffiliated financial institutions at a discount. In these factoring arrangements, for ease of administration, the Company will collect customer payments related to the factored receivables and remit those payments to the financial institutions. The Company sold $185 million of trade accounts receivables under this program during the year ended December 31, 2020, and the costs of factoring such receivables were not material. The Company accounts for this program as a sale, and accordingly, the trade receivables sold are excluded from trade accounts receivable on our consolidated balance sheet. The cash received from the financial institutions is classified within the operating activities section in the consolidated statement of cash flows.
Inventories consist primarily of raw materials and packaging (which include ingredients and supplies) and finished goods (which include concentrates and syrups in our concentrate operations and finished beverages in our finished product operations). Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We determine cost on the basis of the average cost or first-in, first-out methods.
Inventories consisted of the following (in millions):
Our Company, when deemed appropriate, uses derivatives as a risk management tool to mitigate the potential impact of certain market risks. The primary market risks managed by the Company through the use of derivative instruments are foreign currency exchange rate risk, commodity price risk and interest rate risk. All derivatives are carried at fair value in our consolidated balance sheet in the following line items, as applicable: prepaid expenses and other assets; other assets; accounts payable and accrued expenses; and other liabilities. The cash flow impact of the Company's derivative instruments is primarily included in our consolidated statement of cash flows in net cash provided by operating activities. Refer to Note 5.
Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 842, Leases. We determine if an arrangement contains a lease at inception based on whether or not the Company has the right to control the asset during the contract period and other facts and circumstances.
We are the lessee in a lease contract when we obtain the right to control the asset. Operating leases are included in the line items other assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses, and other liabilities in our consolidated balance sheet. Operating lease right-of-use ("ROU") assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease, both of which are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date. Leases with a lease term of 12 months or less at inception are not recorded on our consolidated balance sheet and are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease term in our consolidated statement of income. We determine the lease term by assuming the exercise of renewal options that are reasonably certain. As most of our leases do not provide an implicit interest rate, we use our local incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of future payments. When our contracts contain lease and non-lease components, we account for both components as a single lease component. Refer to Note 9.
We have various arrangements for certain fountain equipment under which we are the lessor. These leases meet the criteria for operating lease classification. Lease income associated with these leases is not material.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost. Repair and maintenance costs that do not improve service potential or extend economic life are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is recorded principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of our assets, which are reviewed periodically and generally have the following ranges: buildings and improvements: 40 years or less; and machinery and equipment: 20 years or less. Land is not depreciated, and construction in progress is not depreciated until ready for service. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the remaining lease term, including renewals that are deemed to be reasonably assured, or the estimated useful life of the improvement. Depreciation is not recorded during the period in which a long-lived asset or disposal group is classified as held for sale, even if the asset or disposal group continues to generate revenue during the period. Depreciation expense, including the depreciation expense of assets under finance leases, totaled $1,301 million, $1,208 million and $999 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Amortization expense for leasehold improvements totaled $18 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018.
The following table summarizes our property, plant and equipment (in millions):
Certain events or changes in circumstances may indicate that the recoverability of the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment should be assessed, including, among others, a significant decrease in market value, a significant change in the business climate in a particular market, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with historical losses or projected future losses. When such events or changes in circumstances are present and an impairment test is performed, we estimate the future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of property, plant and equipment, including appraisals and discounted cash flow models. These appraisals and models include assumptions we believe are consistent with those a market participant would use.
Goodwill, Trademarks and Other Intangible Assets
We classify intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization, (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization and (3) goodwill. We determine the useful lives of our identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors we consider when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company's long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or other local regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset, and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives, generally less than 25 years. Refer to Note 7.
When events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable, management assesses the recoverability of the carrying value by preparing estimates of sales volume and the resulting profit and cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, we recognize an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value. We use a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of these assets, including discounted cash flow models, which include assumptions we believe are consistent with those a market participant would use.
We test intangible assets determined to have indefinite useful lives, including trademarks, franchise rights and goodwill, for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that assets might be impaired. Our Company performs these annual impairment tests as of the first day of our third fiscal quarter. We use a variety of methodologies in conducting impairment assessments of indefinite-lived intangible assets, including, but not limited to, discounted cash flow models, which include assumptions we believe are consistent with those a market participant would use. For indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, if the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, rather than completing the impairment test. The Company must assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing described above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further assessment.
We perform impairment tests of goodwill at our reporting unit level, which is one level below our operating segments. Our operating segments are primarily based on geographic responsibility, which is consistent with the way management runs our business. Our operating segments are subdivided into smaller geographic regions or territories that we sometimes refer to as "business units." These business units are also our reporting units. Our Global Ventures operating segment includes the results of our Costa Limited ("Costa"), innocent and doğadan businesses as well as fees earned pursuant to distribution coordination agreements between the Company and Monster Beverage Corporation ("Monster"), each of which is its own reporting unit. The Bottling Investments operating segment includes all consolidated bottling operations, regardless of geographic location.
Generally, each consolidated bottling operation within our Bottling Investments operating segment is its own reporting unit. Goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit or units that benefit from the synergies arising from each business combination.
In order to test for goodwill impairment, the Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value,
including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, goodwill is written down for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. However, the loss recognized cannot exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. We typically use discounted cash flow models to determine the fair value of a reporting unit. The assumptions used in these models are consistent with those we believe a market participant would use. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of goodwill in order to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill and other intangible assets. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing discussed above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further testing.
Impairment charges related to intangible assets, including goodwill, are generally recorded in the line item other operating charges or, to the extent they relate to equity method investees, in the line item equity income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income.
Our Company is involved in various legal proceedings and tax matters. Due to their nature, such legal proceedings and tax matters involve inherent uncertainties including, but not limited to, court rulings, negotiations between affected parties and governmental actions. Management assesses the probability of loss for such contingencies and accrues a liability and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. Refer to Note 11.
Our Company grants awards under its stock-based compensation plans to certain employees of the Company. These awards include stock options, restricted stock units, restricted stock and performance-based share units. The fair value of our stock option grants is estimated on the grant date using a Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model. The Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the period the stock option grant is earned by the employee, which is generally four years.
The fair value of our restricted stock units, restricted stock and certain performance-based share units is the quoted market value of the Company's stock on the grant date less the present value of the expected dividends not received during the relevant period. For most performance-based share units granted from 2014 to 2017 and for performance-based share units granted to executives in 2018, 2019 and 2020, the Company includes a relative total shareowner return ("TSR") modifier to determine the number of shares earned at the end of the performance period. For these awards, the number of shares earned based on the certified achievement of the predefined performance criteria will be reduced or increased if the Company's total shareowner return over the performance period relative to a predefined compensation comparator group of companies falls outside of a defined range. The fair value of performance-based share units that include the TSR modifier is determined using a Monte Carlo valuation model.
In the period it becomes probable that the minimum performance threshold specified in the performance-based share award will be achieved, we recognize expense for the proportionate share of the total fair value of the award related to the vesting period that has already lapsed. The remaining fair value of the award is expensed on a straight-line basis over the balance of the vesting period. In the event the Company determines it is no longer probable that we will achieve the minimum performance threshold specified in the award, we reverse all of the previously recognized compensation expense in the period such a determination is made.
The Company has made a policy election to estimate the number of stock-based compensation awards that are expected to vest to determine the amount of compensation expense recognized in earnings. Forfeiture estimates are trued-up through the vesting date in order to ensure that total compensation expense is recognized only for those awards that ultimately vest. Refer to Note 12.
Income tax expense includes U.S., state, local and international income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. The tax rate used to determine the deferred tax assets and liabilities is the enacted tax rate for the year and manner in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized.
The Company is involved in various tax matters, with respect to some of which the outcome is uncertain. We establish reserves to remove some or all of the tax benefit of any of our tax positions at the time we determine that it becomes uncertain based
upon one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is not "more likely than not" to be sustained; (2) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but for a lesser amount; or (3) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but not in the financial period in which the tax position was originally taken. For purposes of evaluating whether or not a tax position is uncertain, (1) we presume the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information; (2) the technical merits of a tax position are derived from authorities such as legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings and caselaw and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position; and (3) each tax position is evaluated without consideration of the possibility of offset or aggregation with other tax positions taken. A number of years may elapse before a particular uncertain tax position is audited and finally resolved or when a tax assessment is raised. The number of years subject to tax assessments varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. The tax benefit that has been previously reserved because of a failure to meet the "more likely than not" recognition threshold would be recognized in income tax expense in the first interim period when the uncertainty disappears under any one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position, amount, and/or timing is ultimately settled through negotiation or litigation, or (3) the statute of limitations for the tax position has expired. Refer to Note 11 and Note 14.
Translation and Remeasurement
We translate the assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries from their respective functional currencies to U.S. dollars at the appropriate spot rates as of the balance sheet date. Generally, our foreign subsidiaries use the local currency as their functional currency. Changes in the carrying values of these assets and liabilities attributable to fluctuations in spot rates are recognized in net foreign currency translation adjustments, a component of AOCI. Refer to Note 15. Accounts in our consolidated statement of income are translated using the monthly average exchange rates during the year.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a currency that is different from a reporting entity's functional currency must first be remeasured from the applicable currency to the legal entity's functional currency. The effect of this remeasurement process is recognized in the line item other income (loss) — net in our consolidated statement of income and is partially offset by the impact of our economic hedging program for certain exposures on our consolidated balance sheet. Refer to Note 5.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In August 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2017-12, Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities ("ASU 2017-12"), which eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and requires companies to recognize all elements of hedge accounting that impact earnings in the same line item in the statement of income where the hedged item resides. The amendments in this update include new alternatives for measuring the hedged item for fair value hedges of interest rate risk and ease the requirements for effectiveness testing, hedge documentation and applying the critical terms match method. We adopted ASU 2017-12 effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective method. We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to decrease the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2019 by $12 million, net of tax. Refer to Note 5 for additional disclosures required by this ASU.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income ("ASU 2018-02"), which permits entities to reclassify the disproportionate income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("Tax Reform Act") on items within AOCI to reinvested earnings. These disproportionate income tax effect items are referred to as "stranded tax effects." The amendments in this update only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act. Other accounting guidance that requires the effect of changes in tax laws or rates to be included in net income is not affected by this update. We adopted ASU 2018-02 effective January 1, 2019. We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2019 by $558 million related to the effect that the change in the income tax rate had on the gross deferred tax amounts of items remaining in AOCI.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09, and its amendments, were primarily included in ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which we adopted effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to decrease the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2018 by $257 million, net of tax.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, which addresses certain aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018, and we are now recognizing any changes in the fair value of certain equity investments in net income as prescribed by the new standard rather than in other comprehensive income ("OCI"). We recognized a cumulative effect adjustment to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2018 by $409 million, net of tax.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory ("ASU 2016-16"), which requires the Company to recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. ASU 2016-16 was effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018 and was adopted
using a modified retrospective basis. We recorded a $2.9 billion cumulative effect adjustment to increase the opening balance of reinvested earnings as of January 1, 2018, with the majority of the offset being recorded in the line item deferred income tax assets in our consolidated balance sheet.
In March 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-05, Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118. The amendments in this update provide guidance on when to record and disclose provisional amounts for certain income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act. The amendments also require any provisional amounts or subsequent adjustments to be included in net income. Additionally, this ASU discusses required disclosures that an entity must make with regard to the Tax Reform Act. This ASU is effective immediately as new information is available to adjust provisional amounts that were previously recorded. The Company adopted this standard and subsequently finalized the accounting based on the guidance, interpretations and data available as of December 31, 2018. Refer to Note 14.
The entire disclosure for the business description and accounting policies concepts. Business description describes the nature and type of organization including but not limited to organizational structure as may be applicable to holding companies, parent and subsidiary relationships, business divisions, business units, business segments, affiliates and information about significant ownership of the reporting entity. Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef